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Intelligente Migrationspolitik für global mobile Arbeitskräfte

Selected for the Global Economic Symposium 2012

“While the world is rapidly globalizing, international labor mobility remains severely restricted for all but those with rare or high skills. Many inhabitants of developing countries would like to emigrate legally to work abroad, but do not qualify for legal admission in destination countries. This is because policy makers naturally focus on the net national economic impact thereof when considering reforms and they strongly consider national public opinion when designing these labor migration policies.

Migration, Integration und Identität

Selected for the Global Economic Symposium 2011

Migration is a central dimension of globalization entailing major challenges but also important opportunities to countries of origin, countries of destination and migrants themselves. Advances in ICT and cheap travel allow migrants to increasingly sustain enduring ties between home and host countries. This “migrant transnationalism” is reflected in an increased importance of repeat or circular migration and a growing engagement of diasporas in the economic and political development of their countries of origin. As a consequence, a growing number of people tend to identify with more than one country and more than one culture. Migrant transnationalism offers important benefits to both, source countries and destination countries. It encourages international trade and capital flows as well as the diffusion of knowledge and social and political norms, which will foster economic development. Destination countries may in addition benefit from spurred innovation through diversity as well as from the mitigation of short term labor shortages.

Arbeitsmarktdiskriminierung: 2. Migranten und Ausländer

In Deutschland ist die Zuwanderung von meist ungelernten Arbeitskräften jahrzehntelang im jeweils kurzfristigen arbeitsmarktpolitischen Interesse organisiert worden. Erst seit einigen Jahren werden diese Menschen in der öffentlichen Meinung zunehmend als Migranten gesehen, so dass ihr Verharren in niedriger Bildung, wenig qualifizierten Arbeitsplätzen und erhöhter Arbeitslosigkeit als fortdauernde Diskriminierung wahrgenommen wird. Damit ist immerhin ein erster Ansatzpunkt gegeben für die Entwicklung politischer Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung ihrer Arbeitsmarkt- und damit Integrationschancen.

Übertragbarer Arbeitslosenversicherungsschutz für Arbeitsmigranten

 

The recent global financial crisis had destructive consequences for the world’s labor markets. Migrant laborers and overseas contract workers were at the forefront of massive retrenchments and, as a result, remittances fell sharply in some of the world most remittance-dependent economies. Large waves of returnees were reported, while other unemployed migrant workers stayed on in their host countries, competing for scarce jobs, and likely fueling social tensions in the process. Unfortunately, the majority of overseas workers fall outside formal unemployment insurance systems. In host countries around the world, there are typically no mechanisms for guest workers to pay into an unemployment insurance system. Nor are migrant workers covered by unemployment insurance systems in their countries of origin. At the same time, a large fraction of migrant workers are undocumented workers and would not be covered by any social insurance system in the first place. Some unemployed workers with adequate savings may have fared well, but for most workers, the consequences of the crisis have likely been borne fully by them and by their households. In the post-crisis environment, host countries and countries of origin have an opportunity to consider how best to provide safety nets for their overseas workers. As the global economy recovers, unemployed migrant workers will likely find new jobs and those who returned to their home countries will likely be redeployed.

Remittances

Remittances, der Kapitaltransfer, den Migranten in ihre Ursprungsländer leisten, nehmen hinter den Direktinvestitionen den zweiten Platz der Kapitalzuflüsse in Entwicklungsländer ein. Sie sind deutlich umfangreicher als die, die im Rahmen der offiziellen Entwicklungshilfe entstehen.

Was bewirken diese enormen Finanzströme in den Zielländern? Gehen sie in den Konsum oder werden sie zu Investitionszwecken verwendet? Fördern sie die Entwicklung eines Landes oder bewirken sie die Ungleichheit innerhalb einer Gesellschaft?

Die Titel der Literaturzusammenstellung aus dem Online-Katalog ECONIS der ZBW befassen sich mit Ausmaß und Auswirkung innerhalb der Empfängerländer von Remittances – allgemein und in Fallbeispielen.