Migration, Integration und Identität

Selected for the Global Economic Symposium 2011

Migration is a central dimension of globalization entailing major challenges but also important opportunities to countries of origin, countries of destination and migrants themselves. Advances in ICT and cheap travel allow migrants to increasingly sustain enduring ties between home and host countries. This “migrant transnationalism” is reflected in an increased importance of repeat or circular migration and a growing engagement of diasporas in the economic and political development of their countries of origin. As a consequence, a growing number of people tend to identify with more than one country and more than one culture. Migrant transnationalism offers important benefits to both, source countries and destination countries. It encourages international trade and capital flows as well as the diffusion of knowledge and social and political norms, which will foster economic development. Destination countries may in addition benefit from spurred innovation through diversity as well as from the mitigation of short term labor shortages.Alle Titel können über den Dokumentenlieferdienst der ZBW bestellt werden.

 

Wesentliches Schlagwort: Ethnische Gruppe

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Internationale Wanderung

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Migranten

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Soziale Integration

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Regionale Aspekte: Welt – Internationale Wanderung

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Wesentliche Person: Klaus F. Zimmermann

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Wesentliche Reihe: Discussion paper series Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit

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Literaturliste

Return migration, human capital accumulation and the brain drain / Christian Dustmann; Itzhak Fadlon; Yoram Weiss.

  • Return migration, human capital accumulation and the brain drain / Christian Dustmann; Itzhak Fadlon; Yoram Weiss.
    (2011) In: Journal of development economics. – Amsterdam. – Bd. 95.2011, 1, (Mai.2011) S. 58-67.

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Immigration to the land of redistribution / by Tito Boeri.
Negative perceptions about migrants in Europe, the Continent with the largest social policy programmes, are driven by concerns that foreigners are a net fiscal burden. Paradoxically instruments of social inclusion are becoming a weapon of mass exclusion. Increasing concerns of public opinion are indeed pressing Governments, in the midst of the recession, to reduce welfare access by migrants or further tighten migration policies. Are there politically feasible alternatives to these two hardly enforceable (and procyclical) policy options? In this paper we look at economic and cultural determinants of negative perceptions about migrants in Europe. Based on a simple model of the perceived fiscal effects of migration and on a largely unexploited database (EU-Silc), we find no evidence that legal migrants, notably skilled migrants, are net recipients of transfers from the state. However, there is evidence of “residual dependency” on non-contributory transfers and self-selection of migrants more likely to draw on welfare in the countries with the most generous welfare state. Moreover, redistribution does not find much support among those who are in favour of immigration. A way out of the migration into the welfare state dilemma facing Europe involves i. co-ordinating safety nets across the EU, ii. adopting explicitly selective migration policies, and iii. improving activation programmes. Other options such as restricting migration or welfare access by migrants are however on the agenda of national Governments. — Migration policy ; welfare access ; fiscal externality

Social security regimes, global estimates, and good practices : the status of social protection for international migrants / Johanna Avato, Johannes Koettl and Rachel Sabates-Wheeler.

  • Social security regimes, global estimates, and good practices : the status of social protection for international migrants / Johanna Avato, Johannes Koettl and Rachel Sabates-Wheeler.
    (2010) In: World development. – Amsterdam. – Bd. 38.2010, 4, (Apr.2010) S. 455-466.

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Selective immigration policies, migrants’ education and welfare at origin / Simone Bertoli and Herbert Brücker.

  • Selective immigration policies, migrants’ education and welfare at origin / Simone Bertoli and Herbert Brücker.
    (2011) Discussion paper series / Centre for Economic Policy Research ; 8196 : International macroeconomics; 10 S.

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Diasporas / Michel Beine; Frédérice Docquier; øÇaæglar Özden.

  • Diasporas / Michel Beine; Frédérice Docquier; øÇaæglar Özden.
    (2011) In: Journal of development economics. – Amsterdam. – Bd. 95.2011, 1, (Mai.2011) S. 30-41.

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Emigration and democracy / Frédéric Docquier; Elisabetta Lodigiani; Hillel Rapoport; Maurice Schiff.
Migration is an important and yet neglected determinant of institutions. The paper documents the channels through which emigration affects home country institutions and considers dynamic-panel regressions for a large sample of developing countries. We find that emigration and human capital both increase democracy and economic freedom. This implies that unskilled (skilled) emigration has a positive (ambiguous) impact on institutional quality. Simulations show an impact of skilled emigration that is generally positive, significant for a few countries in the short run and for many countries in the long run once incentive effects of emigration on human capital formation are accounted for. — migration ; institutions ; democracy ; diaspora effects ; brain drain

  • Emigration and democracy / Frédéric Docquier; Elisabetta Lodigiani; Hillel Rapoport; Maurice Schiff.
    (2011) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 5496; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 47 S., 366,91 KB).

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  • Emigration and democracy / Frédéric Docquier, Elisabetta Lodigiani, Hillel Rapoport and Maurice Schiff.
    (2011) CID working paper ; 217; Online-Ressource (47 S.).

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  • Emigration and democracy / Frédéric Docquier, Elisabetta Lodigiani, Hillel Rapoport and Maurice Schiff.
    (2011) [Department Working papers / Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics ; 2011,02]; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 47 S., 499 KB).

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  • Emigration and democracy / Frédéric Docquier; Elisabetta Lodigiani; Hillel Rapoport; Maurice Schiff.
    (2011) Policy research working paper ; 5557; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 47 S.).

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Globalization, brain drain and development / Frédéric Docquier; Hillel Rapoport.
This paper reviews four decades of economics research on the brain drain, with a focus on recent contributions and on development issues. We first assess the magnitude, intensity and determinants of the brain drain, showing that brain drain (or high-skill) migration is becoming the dominant pattern of international migration and a major aspect of globalization. We then use a stylized growth model to analyze the various channels through which a brain drain affects the sending countries and review the evidence on these channels. The recent empirical literature shows that high-skill emigration need not deplete a country’s human capital stock and can generate positive network externalities. Three case studies are also considered: the African medical brain drain, the recent exodus of European scientists to the United States, and the role of the Indian diaspora in the development of India’s IT sector. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the analysis for education, immigration, and international taxation policies in a global context.

  • Globalization, brain drain and development / Frédéric Docquier; Hillel Rapoport.
    (2011) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 5590; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 60 S., 455,86 KB).

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  • Globalization, brain drain and development / Frédéric Docquier and Hillel Rapoport.
    (2011) [Department Working papers / Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics ; 2011,18]; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 60 S., 595 KB).

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Remittances and temporary migration / Christian Dustmann; Josep Mestres.

  • Remittances and temporary migration / Christian Dustmann; Josep Mestres.
    (2010) In: Journal of development economics. – Amsterdam. – Bd. 92.2010, 1, (Mai.2010) S. 62-70.

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Migration and Culture / Gil S. Epstein; Ira N. Gang.
Culture is not new to the study of migration. It has lurked beneath the surface for some time, occasionally protruding openly into the discussion, usually under some pseudonym. The authors bring culture into the open. They are concerned with how culture manifests itself in the migration process for three groups of actors: the migrants, those remaining in the sending areas, and people already living in the recipient locations. The topics vary widely. What unites the authors is an understanding that though actors behave differently, within a group there are economically important shared beliefs (customs, values, attitudes, etc.), which we commonly refer to as culture. Culture and identify play a central role in our understanding of migration as an economic phenomenon; but what about them matters? Properly, we should be looking at the determinants of identity and the determinants of culture (prices and incomes, broadly defined). But this is not what is done. Usually identity and culture appear in economics articles as a black box. Here we try to begin to break open the black box.

  • Migration and Culture / Gil S. Epstein; Ira N. Gang.
    (2010) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 5123; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 28 S., 160 KB).

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  • Migration and culture / Gil S. Epstein; Ira N. Gang.
    (2010) Working papers / Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics ; 2010,17; Online-Ressource (38 S.).

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Feature: the integration of immigrants and their children in Europe : introduction / Alan Manning.

  • Feature: the integration of immigrants and their children in Europe : introduction / Alan Manning.
    (2010) In: The economic journal. – Oxford [u.a.]. – Bd. 120.2010, (Feb.2010) S. 1-3.

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Culture clash or culture club? : national identity in Britain / Alan Manning and Sanchari Roy.

  • Culture clash or culture club? : national identity in Britain / Alan Manning and Sanchari Roy.
    (2010) In: The economic journal. – Oxford [u.a.]. – Bd. 120.2010, (Feb.2010) S. 52-71.

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Labour market status and migration dynamics / Govert E. Bijwaard.
In this empirical paper we assess how labour market transitions and out- and repeated migration of immigrants are interrelated. We estimate a multi-state multiple spell competing risks model with four states: employed, unemployed receiving benefits, out-of-the-labour market (no benefits) and abroad. For the analysis we use data on recent labour immigrants to The Netherlands, which implies that all migrants are (self)-employed at the time of arrival. We find that many migrants leave the country after a period of no-income. Employment characteristics and the country of origin play an important role in explaining the dynamics. Microsimulations of synthetic cohorts reveal that many migrants experience unemployment spells, but ten years after arrival only a few are unemployed. Scenarios based on microsimulation indicate that the Credit Crunch will not only increase the unemployment among migrants but also departure from the country. Scenarios also indicate that an increase in the number of migrants from the EU accession countries will lead to higher labour market and migration dynamics. Finally, based on microsimulation we do not expect that the recent simplification of the entry of high income migrants will have a lasting effect, as many of those migrants leave fast. — Migration dynamics ; labour market transitions ; competing risks ; immigrant assimilation

  • Labour market status and migration dynamics / Govert E. Bijwaard.
    (2009) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 4530; Online-Ressource (46 S.).

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  • Labour market status and migration dynamics / Govert E. Bijwaard.
    (2009) Econometric Institute report EI ; 2009,25; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 48 S.).

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Cultural diversity and economic performance : evidence from European regions / by Giovanni Prarolo; Elena Bellini; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano; Dino Pinelli.
We investigate the relationship between diversity and productivity in Europe using an original dataset covering the NUT3 regions of 12 countries of the EU15 (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, former Western Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). In so doing, we follow the empirical methodology developed by Ottaviano and Peri (2006a) in the case of US cities. The main idea is that, as cultural diversity may affect both production and consumption through positive or negative externalities, the joint estimation of price and income equations is needed to identify the dominant effect. Based on this methodology, we find that diversity is positively correlated with productivity. Moreover, we find evidence that causation runs from the former to the latter. These results for EU regions are broadly consistent with those found by Ottaviano and Peri for US cities.

  • Cultural diversity and economic performance : evidence from European regions / by Giovanni Prarolo; Elena Bellini; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano; Dino Pinelli.
    (2009) Nota di lavoro / Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei ; 63.2009 : Global challenges; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 29 S., 387,73 KB).

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  • Cultural diversity and economic performance : evidence from European regions / Elena Bellini; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano; Dino Pinelli; Giovanni Prarolo.
    (2008) HWWI Research Paper … by the HWWI Research Programme Migration Research Group ; 3-14; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 39 S., 563,48 KB).

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Return migration as a channel of brain gain / Karin Mayr; Giovanni Peri.
“Recent theoretical and empirical studies have emphasized the fact that the prospect of international migration increases the expected returns to skills in poor countries, linking the possibility of migrating (brain drain) with incentives to higher education (brain gain). If emigration is uncertain and some of the highly educated remain, such a channel may, at least in part, counterbalance the negative effects of brain drain. Moreover, recent empirical evidence seems to show that temporary migration is widespread among highly skilled migrants (such as Eastern Europeans in Western Europe and Asians in the U.S.). This paper develops a simple tractable overlapping generations model that provides an economic rationale for return migration and which predicts who will migrate and who will return among agents with heterogeneous abilities. We use parameter values from the literature and the data on return migration to simulate the model and quantify the effects of increased openness on human capital and wages of the sending countries. We find that, for plausible values of the parameters, the return migration channel is very important and combined with the incentive channel reverses the brain drain into significant brain gain for the sending country”–National Bureau of Economic Research web site

  • Return migration as a channel of brain gain / Karin Mayr; Giovanni Peri.
    (2008) NBER working paper series ; 14039; 51 S.

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Work and money : payoffs by ethnic identity and gender / Amelie F. Constant and Klaus F. Zimmermann.
Upon arrival in the host country, immigrants undergo a fundamental identity crisis. Their ethnic identity being questioned, they can be classified into four states assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. This is suggested by the ethnosizer, a newly established measure to parameterize a person’s ethnic identity, using individual information on language, culture, societal interaction, history of migration, and ethnic self-identification. In what state individuals end up varies among immigrants even from the same country. Moreover, the quest for ethnic identity affects women and men differentially. This paper contends that ethnic identity can significantly affect the attachment to and performance of immigrants in the host country labor market, beyond human capital and ethnic origin characteristics. Empirical estimates for immigrants in Germany show that ethnic identity is important for the decision to work and significantly and differentially affects the labor force participation of men and women. Women who exhibit the integrated identity are more likely to work than women who are German assimilated; this does not hold for men. However, once we control for selection in the labor market and a slew of individual and labor market characteristics, ethnic identity does not significantly affect the earnings of men or women immigrant workers. — Ethnosizer ; ethnicity ; ethnic identity ; immigrant assimilation ; integration ; ethnic earnings

  • Work and money : payoffs by ethnic identity and gender / Amelie F. Constant and Klaus F. Zimmermann.
    (2009) In: Ethnicity and labor market outcomes. – 2009, S. 3-30.

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  • Work and money : payoffs by ethnic identity and gender / Amelie Constant and Klaus F. Zimmermann.
    (2009) Discussion paper series / Centre for Economic Policy Research ; 7366 : Labour economics; 31 S.

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  • Work and money : payoffs by ethnic identity and gender / Amelie F. Constant; Klaus F. Zimmermann.
    (2009) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 4275; Online-Ressource (31 S.).

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  • Work and money : payoffs by ethnic identity and gender / Amelie F. Constant; Klaus F. Zimmermann.
    (2009) Discussion papers / German Institute for Economic Research ; 908; Online-Ressource (31 S., 108 KB).

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Dual citizenship rights: do they make more and better citizens? / Francesca Mazzolari.
In the 1990s, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Costa Rica and Brazil passed dual citizenship laws granting their expatriates the right to naturalize in the receiving country without losing their nationality of origin. I estimate the effects of these new laws on naturalization rates and labor market outcomes in the United States. Based on data from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. censuses, I find that immigrants recently granted dual nationality rights are more likely to naturalize. They also experience employment and earnings gains, together with drops in welfare use, suggesting that dual citizenship rights not only increase the propensity to naturalize but may also promote economic assimilation. The effects of dual citizenship on improved economic performance, if mediated through naturalization, are consistent with American citizenship conferring greater economic opportunities.

  • Dual citizenship rights: do they make more and better citizens? / Francesca Mazzolari.
    (Aug. 2007) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 3008; Online-Ressource, 31 S., Text.

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Migration, ethnicity and economic integration / Amelie F. Constant; Klaus F. Zimmermann.
This chapter deals with the economic and ethnic diversity caused by international labor migration, and their economic integration possibilities. It brings together three strands of literature dealing with the neoclassical economic assimilation, ethnic identities and attitudes towards immigrants and the natives, and provides an analysis in understanding their interactions. The issue of how immigrants fare in the host country especially in terms of their labor force participation and remuneration has been the core of research in the labor migration literature. If immigrants fare as well as the natives, then they are economically assimilated. While some immigrant groups do, most do not, especially in Europe. Of equal importance is how immigrants identify with the culture of their home and receiving countries, and if natives and immigrants have the right attitudes about each other. Ethnic identities and attitudes seem to be less affected by the economic environment but have implications for economic performance. — Ethnicity ; ethnic identity ; acculturation ; migrant assimilation ; migrant integration ; work ; cultural economics

  • Migration, ethnicity and economic integration / Amelie F. Constant; Klaus F. Zimmermann.
    (2009) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 4620; Online-Ressource (38 S.).

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  • Migration, ethnicity and economic integration / Amelie F. Constant and Klaus F. Zimmermann.
    (2009) Discussion papers / German Institute for Economic Research ; 957; Online-Ressource (38 S., 175 KB).

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  • Measuring ethnic identity and its impact on economic behavior / Amelie Constant; Klaus F. Zimmermann.
    (Sept. 2007) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 3063; Online-Ressource, 23 S., Text.

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  • Ethnosizing immigrants / Amelie Constant; Liliya Gataullina; Klaus F. Zimmermann.
    (Mar. 2006) Discussion papers / German Institute for Economic Research ; 567; Online-Ressource, 30 S., Text.

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The economic value of cultural diversity : evidence from US cities / Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano and Giovanni Peri.
We use data on wages and rents in different U.S. cities to assess the amenity effects on production and consumption of cultural diversity as measured by diversity of countries of birth of city residents. We show that US-born citizens living in metropolitan areas where the share of foreign-born increased between 1970 and 1990 have experienced a significant average increase in their wage and in the rental price of their housing. Such finding is economically significant and robust to omitted variable bias and endogeneity bias. We then present a model in which cultural diversity may have both production and consumption amenity or disamenity effects. As people and firms are mobile across cities in the long run, the model implies that the joint results from the wage and rent regressions are consistent with a dominant production amenity effect of cultural diversity.

  • The economic value of cultural diversity : evidence from US cities / Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano and Giovanni Peri.
    (2006) In: Journal of economic geography. – Bd. 6.2006, 1, S. 9-44.

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  • The economic value of cultural diversity : evidence from US cities / Gianmarco Ottaviano; Giovanni Peri.
    (2004) NBER working paper series ; 10904; 41 S.

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  • The economic value of cultural diversity : evidence from US cities / Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano and Giovanni Peri.
    (2004) Milano; 47 S.

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  • The economic value of cultural diversity : evidence from US cities / Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano; Giovanni Peri.
    (2004) CESifo working paper series ; 1117 : Trade policy; 43 S.

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  • The economic value of cultural diversity : evidence from US cities / Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano and Giovanni Peri.
    (2004) Discussion paper series / Centre for Economic Policy Research ; 4233 : International trade; 47 S.

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Citizenship and employment : comparing two cool countries / Pieter Bevelander and Ravi Pendakur.

  • Citizenship and employment : comparing two cool countries / Pieter Bevelander and Ravi Pendakur.
    (2011) Discussion paper series / Centre for Economic Policy Research ; 8182 : International macroeconomics; 21, [9 S.

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Citizenship laws and international migration in historical perspective / Graziella Bertocchi and Chiara Strozzi.

  • Citizenship laws and international migration in historical perspective / Graziella Bertocchi and Chiara Strozzi.
    (May 2005) Nota di lavoro / Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei ; 2005,71 : KTHC, Knowledge, technology, human capital; Online-Ressource, 39, [7] S., Text.

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  • Citizenship laws and international migration in historical perspective / Graziella Bertocchi; Chiara Strozzi.
    (2004) Discussion papers / WZB, Forschungsschwerpunkt Markt und Politische Ökonomie, Abteilung Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und indusrieller Wandel ; 2004,18; IV, 40 [7] S.

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  • Citizenship laws and international migration in historical perspective / Graziella Bertocchi and Chiara Strozzi.
    (2004) Discussion paper series / Centre for Economic Policy Research ; 4737 : International macroeconomics, public policy and economic history initiative; 39, [7] S.

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The international migration of knowledge workers : when is brain drain beneficial? / Peter Kuhn; Carol McAusland.
We consider the welfare effects of the emigration of workers who produce a public good (knowledge). We distinguish between the knowledge diversion and knowledge creation effects of such emigration, and show that the remaining residents of a country can gain from emigration, even when tastes for knowledge goods exhibit a kind of ‘home bias’. In contrast to existing models of beneficial brain drain (BBD), our results do not require agglomeration economies, education-related externalities, remittances, return migration, or an emigration “lottery”. Instead, they are driven purely by the public nature of knowledge goods, combined with differences in market size that induce greater knowledge creation by emigrants abroad than at home. BBD is even more likely in the presence of weak sending-country intellectual property rights (IPRs), or when source country IPR policy is endogenized.

  • The international migration of knowledge workers : when is brain drain beneficial? / Peter Kuhn; Carol McAusland.
    (Dec. 2006) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 2493; Online-Ressource, 22 S., Text.

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  • The international migration of knowledge workers : when is brain drain beneficial? / Peter J. Kuhn; Carol McAusland.
    (2006) NBER working paper series ; 12761; 22 S.

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The impact of temporary migration on human capital accumulation and economic development / Manon Domingues dos Santos and Fabien Postel-Vinay.

  • The impact of temporary migration on human capital accumulation and economic development / Manon Domingues dos Santos and Fabien Postel-Vinay.
    (2004) In: Brussels economic review. – Bruxelles. – Bd. 47.2004, 1, S. 77-88.

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Why do skilled immigrants struggle in the labor market? : a field experiment with six thousand resumes / Philip Oreopoulos.

  • Why do skilled immigrants struggle in the labor market? : a field experiment with six thousand resumes / Philip Oreopoulos.
    (2009) Cambridge, Mass.; 33, [13] S.

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Economics and identitity / George A. Akerlof and Rachel E. Kranton.

Ethic diversity and economic performance / Alberto Alesina and Eliana La Ferrara.

Measuring ethnic identity and its impact on economic behavior / Amelie F. Constant; Klaus F. Zimmermann.

  • Measuring ethnic identity and its impact on economic behavior / Amelie F. Constant; Klaus F. Zimmermann.
    (2008) In: Journal of the European Economic Association. – Bd. 6.2008, 2/3, (4/5.2008) S. 424-433.

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  • Measuring ethnic identity and its impact on economic behavior / Amelie Constant; Klaus F. Zimmermann.
    (Sept. 2007) Discussion papers / German Institute for Economic Research ; 721; Online-Ressource, 23 S. = 165 KB, Text.

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Gaining from migration : towards a new mobility system / by Jeff Dayton-Johnson, Louka T. Katseli, Gregory Maniatis, Rainer Münz and Demetrios Papademetriou. Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.

  • Gaining from migration : towards a new mobility system / by Jeff Dayton-Johnson, Louka T. Katseli, Gregory Maniatis, Rainer Münz and Demetrios Papademetriou. Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.
    (2007) Paris; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 92 S.).

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  • Gaining from migration : towards a new mobility system / Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development / by Jeff Dayton-Johnson, Louka T. Katseli, Gregory Maniatis, Rainer Münz and Demetrios Papademetriou.
    (2007) Paris; 88 S.

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Return migration: theory and empirical evidence from the UK / Christian Dustmann and Yoram Weiss.

  • Return migration: theory and empirical evidence from the UK / Christian Dustmann and Yoram Weiss.
    (2007) In: BJIR. – Oxford [u.a.]. – Bd. 45.2007, 2, (Jun.2007) S. 236-256.

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Informational cascades and decision to migrate / Gil S. Epstein.

  • Informational cascades and decision to migrate / Gil S. Epstein.
    (2002) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 445; 21 S.

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  • Informational cascades and decision to migrate / Gil S. Epstein.
    (2002) Discussion paper series / Centre for Economic Policy Research ; 3287 : Labour economics; 21 S.

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