Ultimatumspiele: Das Diktatorspiel

Das Dikatorspiel (engl. dictator game) ist eine Variante des sogenannten Ultimatumspiels. Bei dieser theoretischen Spielform muss ein Akteur einen Geldbetrag so aufteilen, dass auch sein Gegenüber diese Aufteilung als gerecht ansieht und dieser zustimmt, denn nur dann erhalten auch beide Akteure ihren Anteil. In einer Variante des Ultimatumspiels, dem Diktatorspiel, „bestimmt der Diktator (oder Proposer) die Aufteilung einer fixen Geldsumme zwischen sich und einem anonymen Spielpartner. Die standardtheoretische Prognose für rationale Egoisten ist, dass der Diktator alles für sich behält und seinem anonymen Spielpartner nichts oder nur wenig mehr als einen Nullbetrag zuweist” (Axel Franzen/Sonja Pointner 2006).

Es folgt eine Zusammenstellung ausgewählter Literatur aus unserer Datenbank Econis.

Wesentliches Schlagwort: Diktatorspiel

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Spieltheorie

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Ultimatum game

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Literaturliste

The importance of moral reflection and self-reported data in a dictator game with production / Alexander W. Cappelen; Astri Drange Hole; Erik Ø. Sørensen; Bertil Tungodden.

  • The importance of moral reflection and self-reported data in a dictator game with production / Alexander W. Cappelen; Astri Drange Hole; Erik Ø. Sørensen; Bertil Tungodden.
    (2011) In: Social choice and welfare. – Bd. 36.2011, 1, (Jan.2011) S. 105-120. 

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  • The importance of moral reflection and self-reported data in a dictator game with production / by Alexander W. Cappelen, Astri Drange Hole, Erik Ø. Sørensen and Bertil Tungodden.
    (Dec. 2007) Discussion paper / Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Department of Economics ; 2007,40; Online-Ressource, 24 S., Text. 

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Directed generosity and network formation : network dimension matters / Ben D’Exelle ; Arno Riedl.
We explore network effects on generosity for different network dimensions. To this end we elicit multiple network dimensions (friendship, social support, economic exchange, etc.) in a rural village in the Southern hemisphere and measure generosity with a sequence of dictator games conducted in the field. We find that networks of different dimensions differ substantially in density, clustering, and centrality. When relating generosity to networks we observe that social distance only matters for friendship ties but that structural network variables are important in all network dimensions. Importantly, these effects are not invariant across different network dimensions. We also find that individual characteristics are unrelated with generosity per se but that they have strong explanatory power for network formation.

  • Directed generosity and network formation : network dimension matters / Ben D’Exelle ; Arno Riedl.
    (2010) CESifo working paper series ; 3287 : Public finance; 43 S. 

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  • Directed generosity and network formation : network dimension matters / Ben D’Exelle ; Arno Riedl.
    (2010) CESifo working paper ; 3287 : Public Finance; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 43 S., 1,66 MB). 

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  • Directed generosity and network formation : network dimension matters / Ben D’Exelle; Arno Riedl.
    (2010) METEOR / Maastricht research school of Economics of Technology and Organizations ; 10/065; Online-Ressource (43 S.). 

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Doing good with other people’s money : a charitable giving experiment with students in environmental sciences and economics / Fredrik Carlsson ….

  • Doing good with other people’s money : a charitable giving experiment with students in environmental sciences and economics / Fredrik Carlsson ….
    (2011) Working papers in economics / Department of Economics, Göteborg University ; 487; Online-Ressource (24 S., 206 KB). 

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On the construction of social preferences in lab experiments / Sarah Borgloh, Astrid Dannenberg, and Bodo Aretz.
This paper studies the construction of social preferences in the lab. Experimental subjects have the opportunity to donate to a charity and to allocate money in a conventional dictator game. The results show that charitable donations and dictator game allocations are positively correlated. The correlation is only significant, however, if the dictator game follows the donation decision. Furthermore, while donation behavior is independent from the order of play, dictator game behavior is not. In line with the constructive-preference approach, we argue that preferences are instable and sensitive to outside influences when subjects are confronted with a new decision situation, while in a well-known situation preferences are more stable. — Social preferences ; charitable donations ; dictator game ; experiment

  • On the construction of social preferences in lab experiments / Sarah Borgloh, Astrid Dannenberg, and Bodo Aretz.
    (2010) ZEW discussion paper ; 10-085 : Environmental and resource economics and environmental management; 28 S. 

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  • On the construction of social preferences in lab experiments / Sarah Borgloh, Astrid Dannenberg, and Bodo Aretz.
    (2010) Discussion paper / ZEW ; 10-085; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 28 S., 279 KB). 

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Does generosity generate generosity? : an experimental study of reputation effects in a dictator game / Maros Servátka.

  • Does generosity generate generosity? : an experimental study of reputation effects in a dictator game / Maros Servátka.
    (2010) In: The journal of socio-economics. – Bd. 39.2010, 1, (Jan.2010) S. 11-17. 

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  • Does generosity generate generosity? : an experimental study of reputation effects in a dictator game / by Maros Servátka.
    (2007) Working paper / Department of Economics, College of Business and Economics, University of Canterbury ; 2007,03; Online-Ressource (27 S.). 

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Voting on a sharing norm in a dictator game / Christoph Vanberg.

  • Voting on a sharing norm in a dictator game / Christoph Vanberg.
    (2010) In: Journal of economic psychology. – Bd. 31.2010, 3, (Jun.2010) S. 285-292. 

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  • Voting on a sharing norm in a dictator game / by Christoph Vanberg.
    (06 July 2007) Jena economic research papers ; 2007,036; Online-Ressource, 23 S., Text. 

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Preschoolers’ allocations in the dictator game : the role of moral emotions / Michaela Gummerum; Yaniv Hanoch; $3212; Katie Parsons; Alegra Hummel.

  • Preschoolers’ allocations in the dictator game : the role of moral emotions / Michaela Gummerum; Yaniv Hanoch; $3212; Katie Parsons; Alegra Hummel.
    (2010) In: Journal of economic psychology. – Amsterdam [u.a.]. – Bd. 31.2010, 1, (Feb.2010) S. 25-34. 

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Giving to Africa and perceptions of poverty / Alvin Etang, David Fielding and Stephen Knowles.

  • Giving to Africa and perceptions of poverty / Alvin Etang, David Fielding and Stephen Knowles.
    (2010) Economics discussion papers ; 1008; Online-Ressource (24, II S., 178 Kb). 

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The 1/d law of giving / by Jacob K. Goeree, Margaret A. McConnell, Tiffany Mitchell, Tracey Tromp, Leeat Yariv.

  • The 1/d law of giving / by Jacob K. Goeree, Margaret A. McConnell, Tiffany Mitchell, Tracey Tromp, Leeat Yariv.
    (2010) In: American economic journal. – Nashville, Tenn.. – Bd. 2.2010, 1, (Feb.2010) S. 183-203. 

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When you ask Zeus a favor : the third party’s voice in a dictator game / by Tetsuo Yamamori, Kazuhiko Kato and Akihiko Matsui.

  • When you ask Zeus a favor : the third party’s voice in a dictator game / by Tetsuo Yamamori, Kazuhiko Kato and Akihiko Matsui.
    (2010) In: The Japanese economic review. – Richmond, Vic.. – Bd. 61.2010, 2, (Jun.2010) S. 145-158. 

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Social communication and discrimination : a video experiment / by Ben Greiner; Werner Güth; Ro’i Zultan.
We report on an experiment using video technology to manipulate pre-play communication protocols in the lab and to study purely social effects of communication on donations and discrimination between potential receivers. The experimental design eliminates strategic factors by allowing two receivers to unilaterally communicate with an anonymous dictator before the latter decides on her gifts. Through the use of three communication setups (none, audio, and audio-visual) we show and analyze the existence of purely social effects of communication. We find that a silent channel leads to discrimination between potential receivers based on impression formation, but does not affect average levels of donations. When the auditory channel is added, average donations increase. The social processes invoked are heterogeneous and communicator-specific but not unsystematic. — bargaining ; communication ; discrimination ; n-person dictator game ; video experiment

  • Social communication and discrimination : a video experiment / by Ben Greiner; Werner Güth; Ro’i Zultan.
    (2010) Jena economic research papers ; 2010,038; Online-Ressource (30 S.). 

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Dictator games in the lab and in nature : external validity tested and investigated in Ugandan primary schools / by Abigail Barr and Andrew Zeitlin.

  • Dictator games in the lab and in nature : external validity tested and investigated in Ugandan primary schools / by Abigail Barr and Andrew Zeitlin.
    (2010) Working paper series / Centre for the Study of African Economies ; 2010,11; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 21 S., 273 Kb). 

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Dictator games : a meta study / Christoph Engel.
Over the last 25 years, more than a hundred dictator game experiments have been published. This meta study summarizes the evidence. Exploiting the fact that most experiments had to fix parameters they did not intend to test, the meta study explores a rich set of control variables for multivariate analysis. It shows that Tobit models (assuming that dictators would even want to take money) and hurdle models (assuming that the decision to give a positive amount is separate from the choice of amount, conditional on giving) outperform mere meta-regression and OLS.

  • Dictator games : a meta study / Christoph Engel.
    (2010) Preprints of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods ; 2010,07; Online-Ressource (37 S.). 

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Does trust extend beyond the village? : experimental trust and social distance in Cameroon / Alvin Etang; David Fielding; Stephen Knowles.

  • Does trust extend beyond the village? : experimental trust and social distance in Cameroon / Alvin Etang; David Fielding; Stephen Knowles.
    (2009) Economics discussion papers ; 0907; Online-Ressource (37 S., 281 KB). 

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Making the world a better place : experimental evidence from the generosity game / Werner Güth; M. Vittoria Levati; Matteo Ploner.
We study ultimatum and dictator experiments where the first mover chooses the amount of money to be distributed between the players within a given interval, knowing that her own share is fixed. Thus, the first mover is faced with scarcity, but not with the typical trade-off between her own and the other’s payoff. Removing the trade-off inspires significant generosity, which is not affected by the second mover’s veto power. On the whole our results confirm heterogeneity in behavior, but point to efficiency concerns as the predominant motive. — Ultimatum ; Dictator ; Social Preferences

  • Making the world a better place : experimental evidence from the generosity game / Werner Güth; M. Vittoria Levati; Matteo Ploner.
    (2009) Jena economic research papers ; 2009,071; Online-Ressource (24 S.). 

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Sustainability – is it contagious? : fairness in an intergenerational three-person dictator game with social interaction / vorgelegt von Gunter Bahr.

  • Sustainability – is it contagious? : fairness in an intergenerational three-person dictator game with social interaction / vorgelegt von Gunter Bahr.
    (2009) Kiel, Univ., Diss., 2009. – ; III, 152 Bl. 

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Justice and fairness in the dictator game / Karl Schurter and Bart J. Wilson.

  • Justice and fairness in the dictator game / Karl Schurter and Bart J. Wilson.
    (2009) In: Southern economic journal. – Chattanooga, Tenn.. – Bd. 76.2009, 1, (Jul.2009) S. 130-145. 

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Minimal social cues in the dictator game / Mary Rigdon; Keiko Ishii; Motoki Watabe; Shinobu Kitayama.

  • Minimal social cues in the dictator game / Mary Rigdon; Keiko Ishii; Motoki Watabe; Shinobu Kitayama.
    (2009) In: Journal of economic psychology. – Amsterdam [u.a.]. – Bd. 30.2009, 3, (Jun.2009) S. 358-367. 

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Group polarization in the team dictator game reconsidered / Wolfgang J. Luhan; Martin G. Kocher; Matthias Sutter.

  • Group polarization in the team dictator game reconsidered / Wolfgang J. Luhan; Martin G. Kocher; Matthias Sutter.
    (2009) In: Experimental economics. – Bd. 12.2009, 1, (Mar.2009) S. 26-41. 

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  • Group polarization in the team dictator game reconsidered / Wolfgang Luhan, Martin Kocher and Matthias Sutter.
    (04 May 2007) Working papers in economics and statistics ; 2007,12; 25 S. 

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  • Group polarization in the team dictator game reconsidered / Wolfgang J. Luhan, Martin G. Kocher, Matthias Sutter.
    (2006) Amsterdam [u.a.]; 20 S. 

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Separating reputation, social influence, and identification effects in a dictator game / Maros Servátka.

  • Separating reputation, social influence, and identification effects in a dictator game / Maros Servátka.
    (2009) In: European economic review. – Amsterdam. – Bd. 53.2009, 2, (Feb.2009) S. 197-209. 

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Game or frame? : incentives in modified dictator games / Timo Heinrich; Thomas Riechmann; Joachim Weimann.

  • Game or frame? : incentives in modified dictator games / Timo Heinrich; Thomas Riechmann; Joachim Weimann.
    (2009) Working paper series / Otto von Guericke University, FEMM, Faculty of Economics and Management ; 2009,8; 18 S. 

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Thinking in Chinese vs. thinking in English : social preference and risk attitudes of multicultural minds / by Li King King.
This paper investigates whether language priming activates different cultural identities and norms associated with the language communicated; bilingual subjects are given Chinese instructions in the Chinese treatment and English instructions in the English treatment. The main findings are: (1) in social preference games involving strategic interactions, e.g., the trust game, subjects in the Chinese treatment are more trusting and trustworthy than in the English treatment. However, (2) in individual choice games about social preference, such as the dictator game, while there is no treatment difference, subjects exhibit in-group favoritism only in the Chinese treatment. Further, (3) subjects in the Chinese treatment expect others to be more risk seeking, and prefer to pick Chinese lucky numbers in a lottery game. These findings support the hypothesis that languages are associated with cultural frames and that communicating in a particular language increases the cognitive accessibility of norms associated with that language. — Identity ; cross-cultural differences ; language ; bilingual ; biculture ; social preference ; risk attitudes

  • Thinking in Chinese vs. thinking in English : social preference and risk attitudes of multicultural minds / by Li King King.
    (2010) Jena economic research papers ; 2010,061; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 72 S., 1,02 MB). 

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A within-subject analysis of other-regarding preferences / Mariana Blanco; Dirk Engelmann; Hans-Theo Normann.
We assess the predictive power of a model of other-regarding preferences – inequality aversion – using a within-subjects design. We run four different experiments (ultimatum game, dictator game, sequential-move prisoners’ dilemma and public-good game) with the same sample of subjects. We elicit two parameters of inequality aversion to test several hypotheses across games. We find that within-subject tests can differ markedly from aggregate-level analyses. Inequality-aversion has predictive power at the aggregate level but performs less well at the individual level. The model seems to capture various behavioral motives in different games but the correlation of these motives is low within subjects. — behavioral economics ; experimental economics ; inequality aversion ; otherregarding preferences

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