Übertragbarer Arbeitslosenversicherungsschutz für Arbeitsmigranten

 

The recent global financial crisis had destructive consequences for the world’s labor markets. Migrant laborers and overseas contract workers were at the forefront of massive retrenchments and, as a result, remittances fell sharply in some of the world most remittance-dependent economies. Large waves of returnees were reported, while other unemployed migrant workers stayed on in their host countries, competing for scarce jobs, and likely fueling social tensions in the process. Unfortunately, the majority of overseas workers fall outside formal unemployment insurance systems. In host countries around the world, there are typically no mechanisms for guest workers to pay into an unemployment insurance system. Nor are migrant workers covered by unemployment insurance systems in their countries of origin. At the same time, a large fraction of migrant workers are undocumented workers and would not be covered by any social insurance system in the first place. Some unemployed workers with adequate savings may have fared well, but for most workers, the consequences of the crisis have likely been borne fully by them and by their households. In the post-crisis environment, host countries and countries of origin have an opportunity to consider how best to provide safety nets for their overseas workers. As the global economy recovers, unemployed migrant workers will likely find new jobs and those who returned to their home countries will likely be redeployed.

  • How should a portable unemployment insurance system be established?
  • Are there political economy constraints that need to be addressed?
  • Should such a system be negotiated bilaterally or in a multilateral setting?
  • Should it be managed by the private sector or the public sector?
  • What are the design features of such a system?

An appropriate unemployment insurance system would be an important step toward offsetting the devastating impact of the next economic downturn— whether local or global in scope—among overseas workers and their families.

Literaturliste

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Economic migration, social cohesion and development : towards an integrated approach / Patrick Taran … [Council of Europe].

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Social security in transition / ed. by J. Berghman ….

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  • Social security for migrants : does the European Union framework provide lessons for developments in SADC? / Marius Olivier.
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A political-economy positive role of the social security system in sustaining immigration (but not vice versa) / Edith Sand; Assaf Razin.

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Illegal labour migrants and access to social protection / Paul Schoukens and Danny Pieters.

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Immigration from outside Europe: chance or challenge for social security? : dimensions of a complex topic ; … based on the introductory lecture of the author at the conference of the European Institute of Social Security on “Immigration from outsiede the EU and Social Security”, September 26, 2007 / Winfried Schmähl.
Zuwanderung aus Ländern von außerhalb Europas oder außerhalb der Europäischen Union steht vielfach auf der politischen Tagesordnung: entweder, um (qualifizierte) Arbeitskräfte anzuwerben oder aber angesichts eines nicht erwünschten Zustroms von Migranten. Der vorliegende Beitrag befasst sich mit Auswirkungen von Migration auf soziale Sicherung, sowohl auf soziale Sicherungssysteme als auch auf die soziale Sicherung von Personen. Die Auswirkungen können je nach Zweig des sozialen Sicherungssystems (Gesundheit, Alter usw.) und ihrer jeweiligen Struktur recht unterschiedlich sein. Migrationsprozesse können auch makroökonomische Variable beeinflussen (was relevant z. B. für die Finanzierung sozialer Sicherungssysteme ist) wie auch die soziale Situation von “Einheimischen”. In diesem Beitrag wird ausschließlich die Situation in den Zuwanderungsländern betrachtet und hierbei ein Überblick über verschiedene Dimensionen dieses hochkomplexen Themenfeldes gegeben. Der Beitrag ist wie folgt strukturiert: Am Beginn stehen Bemerkungen zur Terminologie, die Probleme aufwirft (2). Sodann werden als ein Einflussfaktor einige demographische Daten herangezogen, die für die Zuwanderung von außerhalb der EU neben anderen Einflussfaktoren von Bedeutung sind (3). Danach werden ausgewählte Aspekte im Hinblick auf Struktur und Eigenschaften von Migrationen aufgeführt, die für soziale Sicherung relevant sind (4). Soziale Sicherung ist oft eng verknüpft mit der Integration von Migranten in den Arbeitsmarkt. Deshalb wird dies als Nächstes erörtert (5), bevor im Hauptteil des Beitrags auf Auswirkungen von Migration auf Alterssicherung, das Gesundheitswesen und auf bedürftigkeitsgeprüfte Transferzahlungen eingegangen wird (6). Da diese Effekte zum erheblichen Teil maßgebend von den jeweiligen institutionellen Regelungen beeinflusst werden, wird zur Illustration die Situation in Deutschland im Vergleich zu Spanien (wo dies möglich ist) herangezogen. Schließlich werden einige vorläufige Schlussfolgerungen im Hinblick auf die im Titel des Beitrags gestellte Frage gezogen…

  • Immigration from outside Europe: chance or challenge for social security? : dimensions of a complex topic ; … based on the introductory lecture of the author at the conference of the European Institute of Social Security on “Immigration from outsiede the EU and Social Security”, September 26, 2007 / Winfried Schmähl.
    (2008) ZeS-Arbeitspapier ; 2008,5; 36 S.

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  • Immigration from outside Europe : chance or challenge for social security? ; Dimensions of a complex topic / Winfried Schmähl.
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Cross-border workers in the European internal market : Trojan Horses for member states’ labour and social security law / Herwig Verschueren.

  • Cross-border workers in the European internal market : Trojan Horses for member states’ labour and social security law / Herwig Verschueren.
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The new EU coordination system for workers who become unemployed / Rob Cornelissen.

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Estimating the impact of immigrants on the host country social security system when return migration is an endogenous choice / Murat G. Kirdar.
In this paper, I estimate the fiscal impact of immigrants on the German pension insurance (PI) and unemployment insurance (UI) systems when return migration is an endogenous choice. For this purpose, I develop a dynamic stochastic model of joint return migration and saving decisions that accounts for uncertainty in future employment and income and estimate this model using a longitudinal data set on immigrants from five different source countries. I find that allowing for the endogeneity of the return decision makes a substantial difference in the net gain of the PI and UI systems from immigrants. Exogenous return migration – which has been the practice of the literature so far – underestimates the net gain for almost all demographic groups and the amount of underestimation is remarkable for several demographic groups. In addition, age-at-arrival profiles of net contributions of immigrants – which form the basis of suggestions on selective immigration policies in the literature – are rotated significantly. Finally, a counterfactual policy experiment in which cash bonuses are provided conditional on return to unemployed immigrants turns out be ineffective in terms of reducing the burden on the state coffers for most demographic groups. — Immigrant workers ; life cycle models ; saving ; social security ; public pensions ; unemployment insurance ; public policy

  • Estimating the impact of immigrants on the host country social security system when return migration is an endogenous choice / Murat G. Kirdar.
    (2010) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 4894; Online-Ressource (59 S.).

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Immigration, unemployment and domestic welfare / Alexander Kemnitz.

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Unemployment benefits, risk aversion, and migration incentives / Axel Heitmueller.

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    (Oct. 2002) CERT discussion paper ; 2002/07; Online-Ressource, 31 p., text.

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Unemployment insurance, immigrants’ skills, and native earnings / Alexander Kemnitz.

Global crossroads in social welfare : emergent issues, debates and innovations across the globe / Elieth P. Eyébiyi; Peter Herrmann; Veronica Sheen (eds.).

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Migration and the welfare state : dynamic political-economy theory / Assaf Razin; Efraim Sadka; Benjarong Suwankiri. Center for Economic Studies & Ifo Institute for Economic Research.
We model an overlapping-generations economy with two skill levels: skilled and unskilled. The welfare-state is modeled simply by a proportional tax on labor income to finance a demogrant in a balanced-budget manner. Therefore, some (the unskilled workers and old retirees) are net beneficiaries from the welfare state and others (the skilled workers) are net contributors to it. Migration policies are set to determine the total migration volume and its skill composition.We characterize subgame-perfect Markov political-economic equilibria consisting of the tax rate (which determines the demogrant), skill composition and the total number of migrants. We distinguish between two voting behaviors: sincere and strategic voting. –

  • Migration and the welfare state : dynamic political-economy theory / Assaf Razin; Efraim Sadka; Benjarong Suwankiri. Center for Economic Studies & Ifo Institute for Economic Research.
    (2010) CESifo working papers ; 2991 : Public finance; 27 S.

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    (2010) CESifo working paper ; 2991 : Public Finance; Online-Ressource (27 S.).

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Do workers remittances reduce the probability of current account reversals? / Matteo Bugamelli and Francesco Paternò.

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    PDF-Volltext prüfen & bestellen WorldCat - Weltkatalog Google-Books BibliotheksVerbund Bayern
  • Do workers’ remittances reduce the probability of current account reversals? / Matteo Bugamelli and Francesco Paternò.
    (2005) Policy research working paper ; 3766; 55 S.

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The impact of the credit crisis on poor developing countries : growth, worker remittances, accumulation and migration / Thomas H. W. Ziesemer.

  • The impact of the credit crisis on poor developing countries : growth, worker remittances, accumulation and migration / Thomas H. W. Ziesemer.
    (2009) Working paper series / United Nations University, UNU-MERIT ; 2009,026; 55 S.

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The global financial crisis and remittances : What past evidence suggests / Massimilano Calì with Salvatore Dell’Erba.
There is a heated debate on the effects of the current global financial crisis on remittances to developing countries. Current estimates of the effects rely on questionable assumptions and are not well suited to predict changes in inflows to individual developing countries following the crisis. By specifying a model of remittance outflows’ determinants, and by using information on past systemic banking crises, we identify possible effects of the current crisis on total remittances to developing countries. On the basis of this, and of a model of remittance inflows, we estimate that remittances to developing countries could drop by between $25 and $67 billion in 2009. Such drops are slightly larger than those estimated by the World Bank. We also predict the possible changes in inflows for individual developing regions. The regions that seem more likely to be affected by the crisis are Latin America and Caribbean and East Asia and the Pacific, given their relatively higher share of remittances received from high income countries, which are being more negatively affected by the crisis.

  • The global financial crisis and remittances : What past evidence suggests / Massimilano Calì with Salvatore Dell’Erba.
    (2009) Working paper / Overseas Development Institute ; 303; Online-Ressource (V, 27 S. = 833 KB).

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Remittances : an automatic output stabilizer? / Ralph Chami, Dalia Hakura, and Peter Montiel.

  • Remittances : an automatic output stabilizer? / Ralph Chami, Dalia Hakura, and Peter Montiel.
    (2009) IMF working paper ; 09/91; 31 S.

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Soziale Sicherung

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