Internationale Abstimmung von Außenhandels- und Klimaschutzpolitik

Selected for the Global Economic Symposium 2010

Never before has the nexus between environmental protection and trade measures been so concretely discussed in WTO circles. And never before has the traditional view that trade measures are both inferior to other measures and irreconcilable with WTO rules been questioned so fiercely.

The challenge is that the gap between (mostly rich) countries which are willing to cap greenhouse gas emissions through national legislation and emission trading schemes and those (mostly emerging) economies which are still relatively inactive in this respect has widened. To reach level playing field and to protect their existing industrial patterns, important members of the former group such as France propose to impose border carbon adjustment (BCA) measures on imports from the latter group through taxes. Cases for such taxes comprise the argument that such ‘green protection’ is necessary to discourage circumvention of national legislation by outsourcing “dirty” industries and to smoothen industry adjustment towards less emissionintensive technologies.

Countervailing arguments are powerful as well. They range from discrimination and protectionism in disguise to outright ineffectiveness because of inducing “dirty” non-tradable activities and negligible effects on trade flows via price changes. In short, opponents reject the view that carbon leakage could be offset via BCA measures. Yet, the ethical questions of climate change remain unsolved and crucial and it cannot be denied that trade-related activities such as transport and travel burden the environment via emissions.

  • Which options could prevent international disputes on BCA measures in case there is no agreement between industrialized and developing economies?
  • Should there be a “peace clause” obliging countries to seek negotiation rather than taking all disputes to the WTO and if so, how should developing countries be motivated to agree on that?
  • Should developing countries be financially compensated if they commit themselves to the carbon tax system and should compensation be differentiated depending on whether the countries join now or later?

Literaturliste

Trade, climate change and sustainable development : key issues for small states, least developed countries and vulnerable economies / ed. by Moustapha Kamal Gueye ….

  • (2009) London; XII, 180 S.
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  • Competitiveness and border measures / Thomas L. Brewer.
    (2009) In: Trade, climate change and sustainable development. – 2009, S. 121-146.

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  • Mitigation and adaptation in agriculture, fisheries and forestry / Anthony Okon Nyong.
    (2009) In: Trade, climate change and sustainable development. – 2009, S. 99-119.

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  • Technologies / Paul Waide.
    (2009) In: Trade, climate change and sustainable development. – 2009, S. 67-97.

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  • Trade and transport / Keith Nurse.
    (2009) In: Trade, climate change and sustainable development. – 2009, S. 49-66.

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  • Responses to trade and adaptation challenges / Vicente Yu.
    (2009) In: Trade, climate change and sustainable development. – 2009, S. 21-48.

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  • Introduction: key issues for smaller developing countries / Ivan Mbirimi.
    (2009) In: Trade, climate change and sustainable development. – 2009, S. 13-19.

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Reflections on climate change and trade / Jagdish Bhagwati.

Energy security: economics, politics, strategies, and implications / Carlos Pascual; Jonathan Elkind, eds..

  • Energy security: economics, politics, strategies, and implications / Carlos Pascual; Jonathan Elkind, eds..
    (c 2010) Washington, DC; VIII, 279 S.

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  • Five “Gs” : lessons from world trade for governing global climate change / William Antholis.
    (2009) In: Brookings trade forum. – 2008/09, S. 121-138.

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Addressing the leakage/competitiveness issue in climate change policy proposals / Jeffrey A. Frankel.

  • Addressing the leakage/competitiveness issue in climate change policy proposals / Jeffrey A. Frankel.
    (2009) In: Brookings trade forum. – Washington, DC. – 2008/09, S. 69-91.

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International trade law and the economics of climate policy : evaluating the legality and effectiveness of proposals to address competitiveness and leakage concerns / Jason E. Bordoff.

  • International trade law and the economics of climate policy : evaluating the legality and effectiveness of proposals to address competitiveness and leakage concerns / Jason E. Bordoff.
    (2009) In: Brookings trade forum. – Washington, DC. – 2008/09, S. 35-68.

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Institutional challenges to enhance policy co-ordination : how WTO rules could be utilised to meet climate objectives? / Mireille Cossy and Gabrielle Marceau.

  • Institutional challenges to enhance policy co-ordination : how WTO rules could be utilised to meet climate objectives? / Mireille Cossy and Gabrielle Marceau.
    (2009) In: International trade regulation and the mitigation of climate change. – Cambridge [u.a.]. – 2009, S. 371-394.

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International trade regulation and the mitigation of climate change : World Trade Forum / ed. by Thomas Cottier ….

  • International trade regulation and the mitigation of climate change : World Trade Forum / ed. by Thomas Cottier ….
    (2009) Cambridge [u.a.]; XVIII, 437 S.

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Climate change, trade, and competitiveness : is a collision inevitable? / Lael Brainard … eds..

  • Climate change, trade, and competitiveness : is a collision inevitable? / Lael Brainard … eds..
    (2009) Brookings trade forum ; 2008/09; X, 197 S.

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Border tax adjustment : a feasible way to support stringent emission trading / Roland Ismer; Karsten Neuhoff.

  • Border tax adjustment : a feasible way to support stringent emission trading / Roland Ismer; Karsten Neuhoff.
    (2007) In: European journal of law and economics. – Dordrecht [u.a.]. – Bd. 24.2007, 2, (Okt.2007) S. 137-164.

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Improving institutional coherence : managing interplay between trade and climate change / Matthew Stilwell.

  • Improving institutional coherence : managing interplay between trade and climate change / Matthew Stilwell.
    (2009) The global economic governance programme at the University College ; 2009,49; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 62 S.).

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Climate policy options and the World Trade Organization / Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Jisun Kim.
This paper examines whether the climate policy options policymakers are contemplating are compatible with core principles of the world trading system set forth in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and Appellate Body decisions. The authors argue that border measuresboth import restrictive measures and export subsidiescontemplated in US climate bills and the climate policies of other countries stand a fair chance of being challenged in the WTO. Given the prospect of foreseeable conflicts with WTO rules, the authors suggest that key WTO members should attempt to negotiate a new code that delineates a large “green space” for measures that are designed to limit GHG emissions both within the member country and globally. By “green space,” the authors mean policy space for climate measures that are imposed in a manner broadly consistent with core WTO principles even if a technical violation of WTO law could occur. To encourage WTO negotiating efforts along these lines, the authors recommend a time-limited “peace clause” to be adopted into climate legislation of major emitting countries. The peace clause would suspend the application of border measures or other extraterritorial controls for a defined period while WTO negotiations are under way. — Global warming climate change ; climate policy options ; world trading system ; world trade organization ; WTO ; border measures ; greenhouse gas emissions

  • Climate policy options and the World Trade Organization / Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Jisun Kim.
    (2009) Economics ; 3.2009-29; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 15 S.).

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  • Climate policy options and the World Trade Organization / Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Jisun Kim.
    (2009) Economics / Discussion papers ; 2009-20; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 14 S.).

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Can carbon based import tariffs effectively reduce carbon emissions? / By Michael Hübler.
We estimate CO2 implicitly contained in traded commodities based on the GTAP 7 data: While net carbon imports into the industrialized countries amount to 15% of their total emissions, net carbon exports of the developing countries amount to 12% of their total emissions, and net carbon exports of China amount to 24% of China’s total emissions. We also analyze policies under a global per capita emissions based contraction and convergence regime with emission trading: When China joins the regime, the developing countries will benefit, while the industrialized countries will be almost unaffected. When China does not join the regime and instead a carbon content based border tax is imposed, the industrialized countries will significantly benefit, while China will be significantly worse off. The effect of the border tax adjustment on the global carbon price and on global emissions seems negligible. — Carbon content of trade ; border tax adjustment ; climate policy ; contraction and convergence ; China

  • Can carbon based import tariffs effectively reduce carbon emissions? / By Michael Hübler.
    (2009) Kiel working paper ; 1565; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 25 S.).

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Trade sanctions, financial transfers and BRIC participation in global climate change negotiations / Huifang Tian; John Whalley.
Countries can reduce global emissions by reducing own consumption since they are linked to the total value of consumption world wide. Two effects are at issue: a utility loss from forgone consumption and a utility gain from lowered temperature change. It is thus unclear whether own country emissions reductions are in the self interest; typically they are not for small countries, but may be for larger countries. Here are investigate the incentives for individual large population low wage rapidly growing countries in the BRIC group (Brazil, Russia, India, China) and the groups of countries as a sub-global coalition. We also assess what level of other countries’ trade measures linked to non participation is needed to induce compliance as an all or nothing discrete choice. We capture induced changes in the global trade equilibrium in our analysis, as well as participation linked to financial transfers. Our results suggest that only very high tariffs over a hundred percent by all other countries, or even higher tariffs by the OECD alone, could induce participation by BRIC countries, especially when the country is a net exporter. Equally, large financial transfers would be needed.

  • Trade sanctions, financial transfers and BRIC participation in global climate change negotiations / Huifang Tian; John Whalley.
    (2010) In: Journal of policy modeling. – Bd. 32.2010, 1, S. 47-63.

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  • Trade sanctions, financial transfers and BRIC’s participation in global climate change negotiations / Huifang Tian ; John Whalley ; Yuezhou Cai.
    (2009) CESifo working paper series ; 2698 : Trade policy; 30 S.

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  • Trade sanctions, financial transfers and BRIC’s participation in global climate change negotiations / Huifang Tian; John Whalley; Yuezhou Cai.
    (2009) CESifo working paper ; 2698 : Trade policy; Online-Ressource ( 30 S.).

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Climate and trade policies in a post-2012 world / United Nations Environment Programme ….

  • Climate and trade policies in a post-2012 world / United Nations Environment Programme ….
    (2009) Nairobi; XXII, 95 S.

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  • Trade and climate change : a report by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Trade Organization / Ludivine Tamiotti; Robert Teh; Vesile Kulaçoæglu; Anne Olhoff; Benjamin Simmons ….
    (2009) Geneva; XXII, 166 S.

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How large are the impacts of carbon motivated border tax adjustments / Yan Dong; John Whalley.

  • How large are the impacts of carbon motivated border tax adjustments / Yan Dong; John Whalley.
    (2009) Cambridge, Mass.; 37 S.

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Chinese trade and border tax adjustments based on environmental protection : the impact of WTO rules / Bill Butcher, Larry Kreiser, Hans Sprohge and Julsuchada Sirisom.

  • Chinese trade and border tax adjustments based on environmental protection : the impact of WTO rules / Bill Butcher, Larry Kreiser, Hans Sprohge and Julsuchada Sirisom.
    (2009) In: Critical issues in environmental taxation. – Oxford [u.a.]. – 2009, S. 463-475.

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“Border tax adjustment” in the context of emission trading : climate protection or “naked” protectionism? / Reinhard Quick.

  • “Border tax adjustment” in the context of emission trading : climate protection or “naked” protectionism? / Reinhard Quick.
    (2008) In: Global trade and customs journal. – Alphen aan den Rijn. – Bd. 3.2008, 5, S. 163-175.

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Economic and environmental effects of border tax adjustments / Everett B. Peterson; Joachim Schleich.
Taxing imports from regions which are not subject to climate policy and subsidi-zing exports into these regions have recently been proposed to address presu-med negative effects of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on in-dustry competitiveness and carbon leakage. This paper analyzes the economic and environmental effects of alternative border tax adjustment (BTA) mecha-nisms using an extended version of the GTAP-E model that explicitly includes domestic trade and transport margins. The BTAs are imposed on regions which have not committed to emission targets under the Kyoto Protocol or which failed to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. The analyses distinguish between effects of the BTAs on the EU15 countries and on the rest of the EU (REU). Likewise, the analyses single out the effects of climate policy with and without BTAs on do-mestic output changes which are due to changes in import competition and ex-port competitiveness. Implementing a BTA whose power is equal to the percen-tage change in production costs in the energy-intensive sectors in the EU has different impacts for those sectors in the EU15 countries compared with the REU countries. In the EU15, the BTA effectively neutralizes import competition in the energy-intensive sectors while enhancing the export competitiveness of these sectors. Conversely, in the REU, the BTA is not effective in neutralizing increased import competition or decreased export competitiveness because the majority of trade by the REU is with countries/regions that are not included in the BTA. Overall, implementing a BTA has little effect on the marginal abate-ment costs of achieving the emission reductions in the Kyoto Protocol and does little in reducing carbon leakage.

  • Economic and environmental effects of border tax adjustments / Everett B. Peterson; Joachim Schleich.
    (2007) Working paper sustainability and innovation ; S1/2007; Online-Ressource (31 S.).

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  • Economic and environmental effects of border tax adjustments / Everett B. Peterson; Joachim Schleich.
    (2007) Working paper sustainability and innovation ; S1/2007; II, 41 S.

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National climate change mitigation measures and their implications for the multilateral trading system : key findings of the WTO/UNEP Report on trade and climate change / Ludivine Tamiotti and Vesile Kulaçoæglu.

  • National climate change mitigation measures and their implications for the multilateral trading system : key findings of the WTO/UNEP Report on trade and climate change / Ludivine Tamiotti and Vesile Kulaçoæglu.
    (2009) In: Journal of world trade. – Bd. 43.2009, 5, (Okt.2009) S. 1115-1144.

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Global warming and the world trading system / Gary Clyde Hufbauer; Steve Charnovitz; Jisun Kim.

  • Global warming and the world trading system / Gary Clyde Hufbauer; Steve Charnovitz; Jisun Kim.
    (2009) Washington, DC; XIII, 166 S.

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Environmental regulation : law, science, and policy / Robert V. Percival ….

  • Environmental regulation : law, science, and policy / Robert V. Percival ….
    (c 2006) 5th ed. – New York; XXXI, 1202 p.

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Trade, globalization and sustainability impact assessment : a critical look at methods and outcomes / ed. by Paul Ekins ….

  • (2009) 1st ed. – London [u.a.]; XVIII, 348 S.
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  • The trade and environment relationships reconsidered : the case of regional trade and climate change / Tancrède Voituriez.
    (2009) In: Trade, globalization and sustainability impact assessment. – 2009, S. 309-330.

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Global environmental policy and global trade policy / Jeffrey Frankel.

  • Global environmental policy and global trade policy / Jeffrey Frankel.
    (2008) Faculty research working paper series / John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University ; 08,058; Online-Ressource (26 S.).

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International trade and climate change : economic, legal and institutional perspectives / The World Bank.

  • International trade and climate change : economic, legal and institutional perspectives / The World Bank.
    (2008) Environment and development; XII, 144 S.

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Außenwirtschaft

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Internationale Handelspolitik

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Klimaschutz

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Klimaveränderung

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: WTO-Regeln

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