Frauen als Basis der ländlichen Entwicklung

Selected for the Global Economic Symposium 2010

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, rural women are responsible for half of the world’s food production. They produce between 60 and 80 percent of the food in most developing countries and are also the main producers of the world’s staple crops (rice, wheat and maize) which provide up to 90 percent of the rural poor’s food intake. As such, women are fundamental for guaranteeing food security and household maintenance not only for their own family, but also for the community in general.

  • How to empower women financially through improved access to credit and finance?
    Women’s efforts to initiate or expand incomegenerating activities are constrained by their limited access to credit and other financial services such as savings and deposits. In spite of recent efforts to increase rural women’s participation in financial markets (e.g., via microcredit programs) women still are disproportionately credit constrained and unbanked. Government policies and creative business initiatives are needed to provide sustainable solutions that can remove these constraints.
  • How to eliminate illiteracy among women and improve the quality of their education?

Literaturliste

Empowering women to achieve food security / ed. by Agnes R. Quisumbing ….

  • Empowering women to achieve food security / ed. by Agnes R. Quisumbing ….
    (2001) A 2020 vision for food, agriculture, and the environment; 28 S. [gez.].

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Building a successful Palestinian state / The Rand Palestinian State Study Team.

  • Building a successful Palestinian state / The Rand Palestinian State Study Team.
    (2005) Rand Corporation monograph series; XLIV, 407 S.

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Women’s control over economic resources and access to financial resources / prep. for ESCWA by Mona Chemali Khalaf.

  • Women’s control over economic resources and access to financial resources / prep. for ESCWA by Mona Chemali Khalaf.
    (2009) United Nations publication; VI, 36 S.

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Microfinance and women’s empowerment / edited by Surendra K. Kaushik, V. Rengarajan.

  • Microfinance and women’s empowerment / edited by Surendra K. Kaushik, V. Rengarajan.
    (2010) New Delhi; xvii, 168 p.

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Microcredit and women / by M. Lakshmi Narasaiah.

  • Microcredit and women / by M. Lakshmi Narasaiah.
    (2008) New Delhi; VIII, 148 S.

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Are women more credit constrained? : experimental evidence on gender and microenterprise returns / by Suresh de Mel, David McKenzie, and Christopher Woodruff.
In a recent randomized experiment we found mean returns to capital of between 5 and 6 percent per month in Sri Lankan microenterprises, much higher than market interest rates. But returns were found to be much higher among men than among women, and indeed were not different from zero for women. In this paper, we explore different explanations for the lower returns among female owners. We find no evidence that the gender gap is explained by differences in ability, risk aversion, or entrepreneurial attitudes. Nor do we find that differential access to unpaid family labor or social constraints limiting sales to local areas are important. We do find evidence that women invested the grants differently from men. A smaller share of the smaller grants remained in the female-owned enterprises, and men were more likely to spend the grant on working capital and women on equipment. We also find that the gender gap is largest when we compare male-dominated sectors to female-dominated sectors, although female returns are lower than male returns even for females working in the same industries as men. We then examine the heterogeneity of returns to determine whether any group of businesses owned by women benefit from easing capital constraints. The results suggest there is a large group of high-return male owners and smaller group of poor, high-ability, female owners who might benefit from more access to capital. — Microenterprises ; gender ; microfinance ; randomized experiment

  • Are women more credit constrained? : experimental evidence on gender and microenterprise returns / by Suresh de Mel, David McKenzie, and Christopher Woodruff.
    (2009) In: American economic journal. – Bd. 1.2009, 3, (Jul.2009) S. 1-32.

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  • Are women more credit constrained? : experimental evidence on gender and microenterprise returns / Suresh de Mel; David McKenzie; Christopher Woodruff.
    (2008) IZA discussion papers ; 3743; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 43 S.).

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  • Are women more credit constrained? : experimental evidence on gender and microenterprise returns / Suresh De Mel; David McKenzie; Christopher Woodruff.
    (Oct. 2008) Policy research working paper ; 4746; Online-Ressource, 43 S., Text.

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Gender in agriculture sourcebook / The World Bank ….

  • Gender in agriculture sourcebook / The World Bank ….
    (2009) Agriculture and rural development; XXIV, 764 S.

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Does women’s status matter for food security? : evidence from Bangladesh / Mohammad A. Razzaque and Mohammad Mokammel Karim Toufique.

  • Does women’s status matter for food security? : evidence from Bangladesh / Mohammad A. Razzaque and Mohammad Mokammel Karim Toufique.
    (Nov. 2007) Research paper / UNU-WIDER ; 2007.79; Online-Ressource, 37 S. = 238 KB, Text.

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Food insecurity, vulnerability and human rights failure / United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research. Ed. by Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis ….

  • Food insecurity, vulnerability and human rights failure / United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research. Ed. by Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis ….
    (2007) Studies in development economics and policy; XXV, 368 S.

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  • Women and food security in South Asia : current issues and emerging concerns / Nira Ramachandran.
    (Nov. 2006) Research paper / UNU-WIDER ; 2006.131; Online-Ressource, 19 S. = 133 KB, Text.

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Women, food security, and development in less-industrialized societies : contributions and challenges for the new century / Stephen J. Scanlan.

  • Women, food security, and development in less-industrialized societies : contributions and challenges for the new century / Stephen J. Scanlan.
    (2004) In: World development. – Amsterdam. – Bd. 32.2004, 11, S. 1807-1829.

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Women farmers and commercial ventures : increasing food security in developing countries / ed. by Anita Spring.

  • Women farmers and commercial ventures : increasing food security in developing countries / ed. by Anita Spring.
    (2000) Directions in applied anthropology: adaptions and innovations; XII, 417 S.

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  • Women farmers and commercial ventures : increasing food security in developing countries / ed. by Anita Spring.
    (c 2000) Directions in applied anthropology : Adaptations and innovations; XII, 419 p.

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Evaluating the impact of microcredit on women’s empowerment in Pakistan / Salman Asim.

  • Evaluating the impact of microcredit on women’s empowerment in Pakistan / Salman Asim.
    (2009) CREB working paper ; 2009,03; V, 63 S.

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Marketing micro-finance to women : integrating global with local / Robert Rugimbana and Anita Spring.

  • Marketing micro-finance to women : integrating global with local / Robert Rugimbana and Anita Spring.
    (2009) In: International journal of nonprofit and voluntary sector marketing. – Chichester. – Bd. 14.2009, 2, (Mai.2009) S. 149-154.

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Microfinance : a reader / ed. by David Hulme ….

  • (2009) Routledge studies in development economics ; 69; XX, 235 S.
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  • Conflicts over credit : re-evaluating the empowerment potential of loans to women in rural Bangladesh / Naila Kabeer.
    (2009) In: Microfinance. – 2009, S. 108-142.

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Cooperatives and micro finance / ed. by V. Frank Ratnakumar ….

  • Cooperatives and micro finance / ed. by V. Frank Ratnakumar ….
    (2009) New Delhi; XV, 261 S.

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  • Micro finance and rural development in India / ed. by S. K. Das ….
    (2008) New Delhi; XII, 163 S.

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  • Rural financial sector : alternate models / ed. by Tamal Datta Chaudhuri.
    (2007) 1. ed. – Icfai books. – Hyderabad; XI, 255 S.

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The vulnerability of ‘self-help’ : women and microfinance in South India / K. Kalpana.

  • The vulnerability of ‘self-help’ : women and microfinance in South India / K. Kalpana.
    (2008) IDS working paper ; 303; 44 S.

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Micro finance and poverty eradication : Indian and global experiences / edited by Daniel Lazar and P. Palanichamy.

  • Micro finance and poverty eradication : Indian and global experiences / edited by Daniel Lazar and P. Palanichamy.
    (2008) New Delhi; xx, 607 p.

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Does microfinance empower women? : evidence from self-help groups in India / Ranjula Bali Swain and Fan Yang Wallentin.

  • Does microfinance empower women? : evidence from self-help groups in India / Ranjula Bali Swain and Fan Yang Wallentin.
    (2009) In: International review of applied economics. – Abingdon. – Bd. 23.2009, 5, (Sep.2009) S. 541-556.

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Empowering women with micro finance : evidence from Bangladesh / Mark M. Pitt; Shahidur R. Khandker; Jennifer Cartwright.

  • Empowering women with micro finance : evidence from Bangladesh / Mark M. Pitt; Shahidur R. Khandker; Jennifer Cartwright.
    (2006) In: Economic development and cultural change. – Chicago, Ill.. – Bd. 54.2006, 4, (Jul.2006) S. 791-831.

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From access to empowerment : widening the debate on gender and sustainable micro-finance / Linda Mayoux.

  • From access to empowerment : widening the debate on gender and sustainable micro-finance / Linda Mayoux.
    (2000) In: Journal für Entwicklungspolitik. – Wien. – Bd. 16.2000, 3, S. 247-273.

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Women’s economic empowerment as smart economics : a dialogue on policy options ; February 22 – 23, 2007, Berlin, Germany / Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development in cooperation with ….

  • Women’s economic empowerment as smart economics : a dialogue on policy options ; February 22 – 23, 2007, Berlin, Germany / Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development in cooperation with ….
    (2007) High level conference report; 104 S.

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Poverty, education and development / Francis Godwyll …, eds..

  • Poverty, education and development / Francis Godwyll …, eds..
    (c 2008) New York, NY; XII, 252 S.

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Economic or non-economic factors : what empowers women? / Ranjula Bali Swain and Fang Yang Wallentin.

  • Economic or non-economic factors : what empowers women? / Ranjula Bali Swain and Fang Yang Wallentin.
    (2008) Working paper / Department of Economics, Uppsala University ; 2008,11; Online-Ressource, 38 S., Text.

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Globalisation at the crossroads / ed. by Sawalia Bihari Verma ….

  • Globalisation at the crossroads / ed. by Sawalia Bihari Verma ….
    (2008) New Delhi; XVIII, 500 S.

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Entwicklungsländer

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Frauen

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Mikrofinanzierung

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