Die Psychologie des Terrorismus

Selected for the Global Economic Symposium 2010

In all parts of the world the processes of globalization have produced winners and losers. Socioeconomic disparities, which exist not only between nations but also inside the societies of all states, are regarded as the major cause for political or political-religious radicalization. Today, the most extreme form of this radicalization is represented by terrorist organizations. The transnational, non-state nature of terrorism and insurgencies has evolved into one of the most prominent threats for international security, stability, and prosperity.

Since it has proven impossible to counter terrorism solely with physical means, it became widely acknowledged that the threat of terrorism has to be also addressed on the psychological level. This means, in general terms, to reduce the support for terrorist organizations in societies.

Extremists generate support for their cause in socially and economically disadvantaged groups prone to political radicalisation. The supporters not only become the recruiting pool for new volunteers willing to kill and die for the cause but—maybe more important—represent the primary source of legitimacy for the extremists.

Thus, since it is almost impossible to cut off the malign influence of extremist ideologies on already politically radicalised groups, it is necessary to reduce political radicalisation in the first place.

Methods to undermine radical ideologies and to prevent disadvantaged social groups from joining violent extremist organizations have to accompany today’s counter-terrorism and counterinsurgency strategies. According to most scholars and practitioners this is the path to a truly comprehensive and lasting approach of addressing the challenge of terrorism in the 21st century. However, how to achieve this in practice remains unclear:

  • What are successful recent long-term counterterrorism/ counterinsurgency strategies of selected states?
  • In which ways can states (or international organizations) integrate private companies, NGOs, and the media in long-term counterterrorism and counter-insurgency strategies?
  • Is a fusion of state and private actors a reasonable/ functional approach in the first place?
  • How can private companies and NGOs operating in countries like Afghanistan and Iraq positively affect the “hearts and minds” of the local population and thus actively contribute to ongoing counterinsurgency and statebuilding operations?
  • How can globally operating companies use their influence in developing (and least developed countries) to reduce political radicalization beyond the simple formula of “jobs, jobs, jobs”?
  • How can the media and private companies undermine or “disenchant” extremist ideologies?

Literaturliste

What makes a terrorist : economics and the roots of terrorism : Lionel Robbins lectures / Alan B. Krueger.

  • What makes a terrorist : economics and the roots of terrorism : Lionel Robbins lectures / Alan B. Krueger.
    (2008) 4. print., and 1. paperback print. – Princeton, NJ [u.a.]; xi, 194 p.

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  • What makes a terrorist : economics and the roots of terrorism ; Lionel Robbins lectures / Alan B. Krueger.
    (c 2007) Princeton, NJ [u.a.]; XI, 180 S.

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Do working men rebel? : insurgency and unemployment in Iraq and the Philippines / Eli Berman; Joseph Felter; Jacob N. Shapiro.

  • Do working men rebel? : insurgency and unemployment in Iraq and the Philippines / Eli Berman; Joseph Felter; Jacob N. Shapiro.
    (2009) Cambridge, Mass.; 20 S.

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What makes a homegrown terrorist? : human capital and participation in domestic Islamic terrorist groups in the USA / Alan B. Krueger.

  • What makes a homegrown terrorist? : human capital and participation in domestic Islamic terrorist groups in the USA / Alan B. Krueger.
    (2008) In: Economics letters. – Amsterdam [u.a.]. – Bd. 101.2008, 3, (Dez.2008) S. 293-396.

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The life satisfaction approach to valuing public goods : the case of terrorism / Bruno S. Frey; Simon Luechinger; Alois Stutzer.

  • The life satisfaction approach to valuing public goods : the case of terrorism / Bruno S. Frey; Simon Luechinger; Alois Stutzer.
    (2009) In: Public choice. – Dordrecht. – Bd. 138.2009, 3/4, (Mar.2009) S. 317-345.

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What directs a terrorist? / Karen Pittel and Dirk T. G. Rübbelke.

  • What directs a terrorist? / Karen Pittel and Dirk T. G. Rübbelke.
    (2006) In: Defence and peace economics. – Bd. 17.2006, 4, (Aug.2006) S. 311-328.

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  • What directs a terrorist? / Karen Pittel; Dirk T. G. Rübbelke.
    (2005) WWDP / Technische Universität Chemnitz-Zwickau, Fakultät für Wirtschaftswissenschaften ; 67; 22 S.

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Rational choice : theoretische Analysen und empirische Resultate ; Festschrift für Karl-Dieter Opp zum 70. Geburtstag / Andreas Diekmann … (Hrsg.).

  • (2008) 1. Aufl. – Wiesbaden; 341 S.
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  • Terrorism from the rational choice point of view / Bruno S. Frey.
    (2008) In: Rational choice. – 2008, S. 211-222.

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Poverty, political freedom, and the roots of terrorism / by Alberto Abadie.

  • Poverty, political freedom, and the roots of terrorism / by Alberto Abadie.
    (2006) In: The American economic review. – Bd. 96.2006, 2, (Mai.2006) S. 50-56.

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  • Poverty, political freedom, and the roots of terrorism / Alberto Abadie.
    (Oct. 2004) Faculty research working paper series / John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University ; 04,043; Online-Ressource, 13 p., text.

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  • Poverty, political freedom, and the roots of terrorism / Alberto Abadie.
    (2004) NBER working paper series ; 10859; 15 S.

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Counter-terrorism, aid and civil society : before and after the war on terror / Jude Howell and Jeremy Lind.

  • Counter-terrorism, aid and civil society : before and after the war on terror / Jude Howell and Jeremy Lind.
    (2009) Non-governmental public action; XII, 242 S.

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International terrorism : causes, consequences and cures / Graham Bird, S. Brock Blomberg and Gregory D. Hess.

  • International terrorism : causes, consequences and cures / Graham Bird, S. Brock Blomberg and Gregory D. Hess.
    (2008) In: The world economy. – Oxford. – Bd. 31.2008, 2, (Feb.2008) S. 255-274.

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The roles of foreign aid and education in the war on terror / Jean-Paul Azam; Véronique Thelen.

  • The roles of foreign aid and education in the war on terror / Jean-Paul Azam; Véronique Thelen.
    (2008) In: Public choice. – Bd. 135.2008, 3/4, (Jun.2008) S. 375-397.

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  • The roles of foreign aid and education in the war on terror / by Jean-Paul Azam and Véronique Thelen.
    (07 Apr. 2007) IDEI working papers ; 449; Online-Ressource, 33 S., Text.

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Making governance work against radicalisation / Aziz Al-Azmeh.

  • Making governance work against radicalisation / Aziz Al-Azmeh.
    (2006) IIS/GI. Kongevej working paper ; 2006,4; Online-Ressource (Text, 54 kB, 13 S.).

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The origins of terrorism cross-country estimates on socio-economic determinants of terrorism / Andreas Freytag; Jens J. Krüger; Daniel Meierrieks; Friedrich Schneider.
To expand our knowledge about an appropriate anti-terror strategy, it is indispensable to assess the underlying causes of terror. We examine social and economic conditions in the country of origin of terrorist attacks, claiming that low opportunity costs of terror, e.g. approximated as slow growth and poor institutions raise the propensity of terror and the willingness in the population to support terror. Using a mixed effects Poisson regression model, we are able to show that unfortunate socio-economic conditions in a country are suitable to reduce the opportunity cost for potential terrorists and increase the likelihood of terrorist attacks originating from a specific country. Interestingly, this effect is relevant after a certain level of development has been reached. We therefore distinguish between the OECD, Europe and Islamic countries. — Terror attacks ; openness ; discrete choice analysis ; institutions

  • The origins of terrorism cross-country estimates on socio-economic determinants of terrorism / Andreas Freytag; Jens J. Krüger; Daniel Meierrieks; Friedrich Schneider.
    (2009) Center of International Economics working paper series ; 2009-01; Online-Ressource (27 S.).

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  • The origins of terrorism cross-country estimates on socio-economic determinants of terrorism / Andreas Freytag; Jens J. Krüger; Daniel Meierrieks; Friedrich Schneider.
    (2009) Jena economic research papers ; 2009,009; Online-Ressource, (27 S.).

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Patterns of force : system strength, terrorism and civil war / by Andreas Freytag; Daniel Meierrieks; Angela Münch; Friedrich Schneider.
We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by violent opposition groups in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 103 countries for the period of 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength and stability of a system is positively related to the likelihood of terrorism but negatively to incidences of more violent forms of violent opposition. We also show that poor conflict management (as a system weakness) positively impacts the likelihood incidences of more violent modes of violent opposition more likely. Furthermore, we find that system size is positively associated with all analyzed modes of violent opposition. — terrorism ; civil conflict ; system strength

  • Patterns of force : system strength, terrorism and civil war / by Andreas Freytag; Daniel Meierrieks; Angela Münch; Friedrich Schneider.
    (2010) Jena economic research papers ; 2010,030; Online-Ressource (24 S.).

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  • Patterns of force : system strength, terrorism and civil war / Andreas Freytag, Daniel Meierrieks, Angela Münch, and Friedrich Schneider.
    (2010) Economics of security working paper series ; 28; Online-Ressource (24 S.).

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Women and radicalization / Margot Badran.

  • Women and radicalization / Margot Badran.
    (2006) IIS/GI. Kongevej working paper ; 2006,5; Online-Ressource, 16 S. = 60 KB, Text.

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Studying violent radicalization in Europe I : the potential contribution of social movement theory / Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen.

  • Studying violent radicalization in Europe I : the potential contribution of social movement theory / Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen.
    (2008) IIS/GI. Kongevej working paper ; 2008,2; Online-Ressource, 17 S. = 230 KB, Text.

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Studying violent radicalization in Europe II : the potential contribution of socio-psychological and psycholigical approaches / Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen.

  • Studying violent radicalization in Europe II : the potential contribution of socio-psychological and psycholigical approaches / Anja Dalgaard-Nielsen.
    (2008) IIS/GI. Kongevej working paper ; 2008,3; Online-Ressource, 23 S. = 250 KB, Text.

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Institutions and sustainability : political economy of agriculture and the environment ; essays in honour of Konrad Hagedorn / Ed. by Volker Beckmann and Martina Padmanabhan.

  • (2009) Dordrecht; XVIII, 387 S.
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  • Make law, not war? : on the political economy of violence and appropriation / Benedikt Korf.
    (2009) In: Institutions and sustainability. – 2009, S. 43-60.

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Rational extremism : the political economy of radicalism / Ronald Wintrobe.

  • Rational extremism : the political economy of radicalism / Ronald Wintrobe.
    (2006) Cambridge [u.a.]; X, 286 S.

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Hard targets : theory and evidence on suicide attacks / Eli Berman; David D. Laitin.

  • Hard targets : theory and evidence on suicide attacks / Eli Berman; David D. Laitin.
    (2005) NBER working paper series ; 11740; 39 S.

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Roads to militant radicalization : interviews with five former prepetrators of politicallys motivated organized violence / Jon A. Olsen.

  • Roads to militant radicalization : interviews with five former prepetrators of politicallys motivated organized violence / Jon A. Olsen.
    (2009) DIIS Reports / Danish Institute for International Studies ; 2009,12; Online-Ressource (62 S., 357 KB).

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Terrorism against American citizens in Africa : related to poverty? / Carlos Pestana Barros, Jo~ao Ricardo Faria, Luis A. Gil-Alana.

  • Terrorism against American citizens in Africa : related to poverty? / Carlos Pestana Barros, Jo~ao Ricardo Faria, Luis A. Gil-Alana.
    (2008) In: Journal of policy modeling. – New York, NY [u.a.]. – Bd. 30.2008, 1, (1/2.2008) S. 55-69.

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The economics of terrorism and counter-terrorism : a survey (Part I) / Friedrich Schneider; Tilman Brück; Daniel Meierrieks.
This survey provides an in-depth analysis of existing research on the economic analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorist measures. First the existing evidence on the causes of terrorism is analyzed, then we consider the evidence of the consequences of terrorism and we demonstrate why it is important to regarding of the issue of counter-terrorism policy. Moreover the survey presents the existing knowledge on the interrelation between the economy and the issue of security and it incorporates analysis the level of knowledge about the causal chains between security and the economy. Also it focuses on perspective and methodologies from the discipline of economics but also refers to research from related disciplines (sociology, political science). It also assembles the knowledge on the impact of terrorism on the economy as reflected in macro-economic variables and its impact on specific sectors. Furthermore it assesses how potential an actual terrorist event determine consumer and producer behaviour, public policy, as well as terrorist responses to these policies. Finally a European perspective on the terrorism security annexes is discussed and here we analyze the causes of terrorism in Europe.

  • The economics of terrorism and counter-terrorism : a survey (Part I) / Friedrich Schneider; Tilman Brück; Daniel Meierrieks.
    (2010) CESifo working paper ; 3011 : Public finance; 45 S.

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  • The economics of terrorism and counter-terrorism : a survey (Part II) / Friedrich Schneider; Tilman Brück; Daniel Meierrieks.
    (2010) CESifo working paper ; 3012 : Public finance; 92 S.

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  • The economics of terrorism and counter-terrorism : a survey (Part II) / Friedrich Schneider; Tilman Brück; Daniel Meierrieks.
    (2010) CESifo working paper ; 3012 : Public Finance; Online-Ressource (92 S.).

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  • The economics of terrorism and counter-terrorism : a survey (Part I) / Friedrich Schneider; Tilman Brück; Daniel Meierrieks.
    (2010) CESifo working paper ; 3011 : Public Finance; Online-Ressource (45 S.).

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International terrorism, political instability and the escalation effect / Nauro F. Campos and Martin Gassebner.
What are the main causes of international terrorism? The lessons from the surge of academic research that followed 9/11 remain elusive. The careful investigation of the relative roles of economic and political conditions did little to change the fact that existing econometric estimates diverge in size, sign and significance. In this paper we present a new rationale (the escalation effect) stressing domestic political instability as the main reason for international terrorism. Econometric evidence from a panel of more than 130 countries (yearly from 1968 to 2003) shows this to be a much more promising avenue for future research than the available alternatives. — Terrorism ; international terrorism ; political instability ; escalation

  • International terrorism, political instability and the escalation effect / Nauro F. Campos and Martin Gassebner.
    (2009) KOF working papers / KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich ; 220; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 40 S.).

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  • International terrorism, political instability and the escalation effect / Nauro F. Campos and Martin Gassebner.
    (2009) Discussion paper series / Centre for Economic Policy Research ; 7226 : Development economics and public policy; 40 S.

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  • International terrorism, political instability and the escalation effect / Nauro F. Campos; Martin Gassebner.
    (2009) IZA discussion papers ; 4061; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 40 S.).

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Selling terror: the symbolization and positioning of Jihad / Nicholas J. O’Shaughnessy; Paul R. Baines.

  • Selling terror: the symbolization and positioning of Jihad / Nicholas J. O’Shaughnessy; Paul R. Baines.
    (2009) In: Marketing theory. – London [u.a.]. – Bd. 9.2009, 2, (Jun.2009) S. 227-241.

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Political violence and underdevelopment / Cristina Bodea and Ibrahim A. Elbadawi.

Security and development in the post-9/11 world / John McKay.

  • Security and development in the post-9/11 world / John McKay.
    (2008) In: International development. – Basingstoke, Hampshire [u.a.] . – 2008, S. 297-319.

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Immigration policy and the terrorist threat in Canada and the United States / Fraser Institute. Ed. by Alexander Moens ….

  • (2008) Vancouver, BC; XV, 237 S.
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  • Immigration and Muslim extremists in the Post-9/11 World / Salim Mansur.
    (2008) In: Immigration policy and the terrorist threat in Canada and the United States. – 2008, S. 21-35.

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The political economy of jihad and the war on terror / Joe Wallis.

  • The political economy of jihad and the war on terror / Joe Wallis.
    (2007) In: Journal of interdisciplinary economics. – Bicester, Oxon. – Bd. 18.2007, 4, S. 317-332.

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Politische Gewalt

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Theorie

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Regionale Aspekte: Welt – Politische Gewalt

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Wesentliche Person: Daniel Meierrieks

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Wesentliche Person: Friedrich Schneider

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