Der Beschäftigungsfalle im informellen Sektor der Entwicklungsländer entkommen

Selected for the Global Economic Symposium 2010

Informality is a way of life throughout the developing world. In poor Sub-Saharan African countries, the informal sector employs the vast majority of the non-agricultural labor force. Informal jobs continue to account for a high share of employment in the middle-income Latin American countries, pointing to the persistence of the phenomenon. The current economic crisis is likely to cause a further surge of informal employment due to job losses in the formal sector.

Even though informality appears in many different guises, informal workers tend to have in common that they earn less than formal workers and that their basic rights are more vulnerable and difficult to defend. Informality can be a major cause of poverty as most informal workers are insufficiently protected from illness and health problems, unsafe working conditions and possible loss of earnings due to sudden dismissal.

Persistently high levels of informal employment also reduce fiscal revenues and the state’s capability to develop social security systems. When it comes to devising strategies that help overcome the informal-employment trap, a number of questions arise.

  • Should formalization always be the ultimate objective, or are measures that raise the productivity of informal workers and provide them with basic social protection equally important?
  • Do high labor costs and restrictions in the formal labor market constitute insurmountable entry barriers, suggesting a need for labor market reforms?
  • Does the tax system give rise to widespread tax evasion?
  • Could more secure property rights lead to a pathway out of poverty for informal entrepreneurs?

Literaturliste

The political economy of Africa / ed. by Vishnu Padayachee.

  • (2010) London [u.a.]; XVIII, 435 S.
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  • Employment, poverty and inclusive development in Africa : policy, choices in the context of widespread informality / James Heintz.
    (2010) In: The political economy of Africa. – 2010, S. 199-213.

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The returns to formality and informality in urban Africa / Paolo Falco, Andrew Kerr, Neil Rankin, Justin Sandefur and Francis Teal.

  • The returns to formality and informality in urban Africa / Paolo Falco, Andrew Kerr, Neil Rankin, Justin Sandefur and Francis Teal.
    (2010) Working paper series / Centre for the Study of African Economies ; 2010,03; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 30 S., 208 Kb).

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Africa’s urban revolution and the informal economy / Keith Hart.

  • Africa’s urban revolution and the informal economy / Keith Hart.
    (2010) In: The political economy of Africa. – 2010, S. 371-388.

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Labor market reform and poverty : the role of informal sector / Sugata Marjit; Saibal Kar; Dibyendu Sundar Maiti.

  • Labor market reform and poverty : the role of informal sector / Sugata Marjit; Saibal Kar; Dibyendu Sundar Maiti.
    (2009) In: New and enduring themes in development economics. – Singapore. – 2009, S. 229-240.

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Informal taxation / Benjamin A. Olken; Monica Singhal.

  • Informal taxation / Benjamin A. Olken; Monica Singhal.
    (2009) Faculty research working paper series / John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University ; 09,033; Online-Ressource (49 S.).

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  • Informal taxation / Benjamin A. Olken; Monica Singhal.
    (2009) Cambridge, Mass.; 49 S.

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The effects of labour market policies in an economy with an informal sector / James Albrecht, Lucas Navarro and Susan Vroman.

  • The effects of labour market policies in an economy with an informal sector / James Albrecht, Lucas Navarro and Susan Vroman.
    (2009) In: The economic journal. – Oxford [u.a.]. – Bd. 119.2009, (Jul.2009) S. 1105-1129.

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The unofficial economy and economic development / Rafael La Porta; Andrei Shleifer.

  • The unofficial economy and economic development / Rafael La Porta; Andrei Shleifer.
    (2009) In: Brookings papers on economic activity. – Bd. 2008,2, S. 275-363 .

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  • The unofficial economy and economic development / Rafael La Porta; Andrei Shleifer.
    (2008) Rev. – Tuck School of Business working paper ; 2009-57. – Hanover, NH; Online-Ressource (40, [26] S., 602,96 KB).

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  • The unofficial economy and economic development / Rafael La Porta; Andrei Shleifer.
    (2008) Cambridge, Mass.; 41, [24] S.

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Urbanization, informal sector, and development / Kazuhiro Yuki.

  • Urbanization, informal sector, and development / Kazuhiro Yuki.
    (2007) In: Journal of development economics. – Amsterdam. – Bd. 84.2007, 1, (Sep.2007) S. 76-103.

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Linking the formal and informal economy : concepts and policies / ed. by Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis; Ravi Kanbur and Elinor Ostrom.

  • Linking the formal and informal economy : concepts and policies / ed. by Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis; Ravi Kanbur and Elinor Ostrom.
    (2009) Reprinted. – UNU-WIDER studies in development economics. – Oxford [u.a.]; XVII, 294 S.

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  • Linking the formal and informal economy : concepts and policies / ed. by Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis, Ravi Kanbur, and Elinor Ostrom.
    (2007) UNU-WIDER studies in development economics; XVII, 294 S.

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  • Linking the formal and informal economy : concepts and policies / ed. by Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis; Ravi Kanbur and Elinor Ostrom.
    (2006) UNU-WIDER studies in development economics; XVII, 294 S.

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Economic growth and poverty : does formaliation of informal enterprises matter? / GIGA Research Program Transformation in the Process of Globalization. German Inst. of Global and Area Studies.

  • Economic growth and poverty : does formaliation of informal enterprises matter? / GIGA Research Program Transformation in the Process of Globalization. German Inst. of Global and Area Studies.
    (2006) GIGA working papers / German Institute of Global and Area Studies ; 20; 39 S.

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Urban informal sector and poverty / Saibal Kar; Sugata Marjit.

  • Urban informal sector and poverty / Saibal Kar; Sugata Marjit.
    (2009) In: International review of economics & finance. – Amsterdam [u.a.]. – Bd. 18.2009, 4, (Okt.2009) S. 631-642.

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The oxymoron of informal sector : a framework for conceptualising informal sector as enabler of economic development in developing countries / Aihie Osarenkhoe.

  • The oxymoron of informal sector : a framework for conceptualising informal sector as enabler of economic development in developing countries / Aihie Osarenkhoe.
    (2009) In: Journal of international business and economics. – [S.I.]. – Bd. 9.2009, 1, S. 118-131.

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A note on informality in the labor market / Melanie Khamis.
This paper provides a detailed analysis of various dimensions of informality in the Mexican labor market. To understand the nature of informality in terms of regulations and compliance, the legalistic view, and in terms of productivity view of the labor market this paper makes an empirical contribution to the debate in the literature on the concept of informality. Questions related to these various concepts, social security and benefits coverage, contractual information, legal status of migrants, the nature of self-employment and job history information are analyzed in terms of their relationship to each other and are also related to individual and household characteristics. This paper finds a substantial overlap between the various concepts, current legal arrangements of social security coverage or contract and also in the individual’s job history. In terms of individual characteristics age, education, martial status and scores in the Raven’s test, an ability measure, are significant determinants for the various forms of informality, with some degree of variation across the different categories. Overall, a case is made for further studies of household survey data and the implementation of questions relating to different dimensions of informality and their inter-linkages. — Informality ; social security ; contracts ; illegal migration ; self-employment ; job history ; Mexico

  • A note on informality in the labor market / Melanie Khamis.
    (2009) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 4676; Online-Ressource (24 S.).

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Does formality improve micro-firm performance? : quasi-experimental evidence from the Brazilian SIMPLES program / Pablo Fajnzylber; William F. Maloney; Gabriel V. Montes-Rojas.
This paper employs regression discontinuity methods to identify the effect of formality on Brazilian micro-firm performance. The SIMPLES program introduced in November 1996 consolidated multiple taxes and social security contributions into a single payment and reduced taxes for eligible small firms. This provides a quasi-natural experiment that allows us to eliminate many of the endogeneity issues surrounding the impact of formality, measured across several dimensions, on firm performance. We find that SIMPLES had a significant effect on the proportion of firms that have a license to operate, are registered as a legal entity, pay taxes and make social security contributions. Moreover, newly created firms that opt for operating formally achieve higher levels of revenue and profits, employ more workers and are more capital intensive (only for those firms that have employees). The channel through which this occurs is not access to credit or contracts with larger firms. Rather, it appears that the lower cost of contracting labor leads to adopting production techniques that involve greater permanence and a larger paid labor force. — Micro-firms ; self-employment ; informality

  • Does formality improve micro-firm performance? : quasi-experimental evidence from the Brazilian SIMPLES program / Pablo Fajnzylber; William F. Maloney; Gabriel V. Montes-Rojas.
    (2009) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 4531; Online-Ressource (35 S.).

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Informality, employment and economic development in the Arab World / Ibrahim Elbadawi; Norman Loayza.

  • Informality, employment and economic development in the Arab World / Ibrahim Elbadawi; Norman Loayza.
    (2008) In: Magallat at-tanm¯iya wa-As-siy¯as¯at al-iqtis¯ad¯iya. – Safat, Kuwait. – Bd. 10.2008, 2, (Jul.2008) S. 25-75.

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Is informality bad? : evidence from Brazil, Mexico and South Africa / Olivier Bargain; Prudence Kwenda.
The informal sector plays an important role in the functioning of labor markets in emerging economies. To characterize better this highly heterogeneous sector, we conduct a distributional analysis of the earnings gap between informal and formal employment in Brazil, Mexico and South Africa, distinguishing between dependent and independent workers. For each country, we use rich panel data to estimate fixed effects quantile regressions to control for (time-invariant) unobserved heterogeneity. The dual nature of the informal sector emerges from our results. In the high-tier segment, self-employed workers receive a significant earnings premium that may compensate the benefits obtained in formal jobs. In the lower end of the earnings distribution, both informal wage earners and independent (own account) workers face significant earnings penalties vis-à-vis the formal sector. Yet the dual structure is not balanced in the same way in all three countries. Most of the self-employment carries a premium in Mexico. In contrast, the upper-tier segment is marginal in South Africa, and informal workers, both dependent and independent, form a largely penalized group. More consistent with the competitive view, earnings differentials are small at all levels in Brazil. — Self-employed ; salary work ; informal sector ; earnings differential ; quantile regression ; fixed effects model

  • Is informality bad? : evidence from Brazil, Mexico and South Africa / Olivier Bargain; Prudence Kwenda.
    (2010) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 4711; Online-Ressource (26 S.).

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In defence of labour market institutions : cultivating justice in the developing world / ILO. Ed. by Janine Berg and David Kucera.

  • (2008) Basingstoke, Hampshire [u.a.]; XVI, 293 S.
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  • Labour standards and informal employment in Latin America / Rossana Galli and David Kucera.
    (2008) In: In defence of labour market institutions. – 2008, S. 192-217.

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Informality in Latin America and the Caribbean / Norman V. Loayza, Luis Servén, and Naotaka Sugawara.

  • Informality in Latin America and the Caribbean / Norman V. Loayza, Luis Servén, and Naotaka Sugawara.
    (2010) In: Business regulation and economic performance. – 2010, S. 157-196.

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  • Business regulation and economic performance / The World Bank. Norman V. Loayza … eds..
    (2010) Washington, DC; XIII, 274 S.

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  • Informality in Latin America and the Caribbean / Norman V. Loayza; Luis Servén; Naotaka Sugawara.
    (2009) Policy research working paper ; 4888; Online-Ressource (33 S.).

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Modelling poverty dimensions of urban informal sector operators in a developing economy / Mahendra Reddy.

  • Modelling poverty dimensions of urban informal sector operators in a developing economy / Mahendra Reddy.
    (2007) In: The European journal of development research. – Basingstoke. – Bd. 19.2007, 3, (Sep.2007) S. 459-479.

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Informal self-employment and macroeconomic fluctuations / Norbert M. Fiess; Marco Fugazza; William F. Maloney.
This paper examines the adjustment of developing country labor markets to macroeconomic shocks. It models as having two sectors: a formal salaried (tradable) sector that may or may not be affected by union or legislation induced wage rigidities, and an informal (nontradable) self-employment sector facing liquidity constraints to entry. This is embedded in a standard small economy macro model that permits the derivation of patterns of comovement among relative salaried/self-employed incomes, salaried/self-employed sector sizes and the real exchange rate with respect to different types of shocks in contexts with and without wage rigidities. The paper then explores time series data from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico to test for cointegrating relationships corresponding to the patterns predicted by theory. We confirm episodes of expansion of informal self-employment consistent with the traditional segmentation views. However, we also identify episodes consistent with the sectoral expansion being driven by relative demand or productivity shocks to the nontradables sector that lead to procyclicalœ behavior of the informal self-employed sector. — Informality ; labor market dynamics ; self-employment ; real exchange rates

  • Informal self-employment and macroeconomic fluctuations / Norbert M. Fiess; Marco Fugazza; William F. Maloney.
    (2010) In: Journal of development economics. – Bd. 91.2010, 2, (Mar.2010) S. 211-226.

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  • Informality and macroeconomic fluctuations / Norbert M. Fiess; Marco Fugazza; William F. Maloney.
    (2008) Discussion paper series / Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit ; 3519; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 48 S.).

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  • Informality and macroeconomic fluctuations / Norbert M. Fiess; Marco Fugazza; William F. Maloney./ Norbert M. Fiess; Marco Fugazza; William F. Maloney.
    (13 Nov. 2006) ; Online-Ressource, Text.

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Asian informal workers : global risks, local protection / ed. by Santosh Mehrotra and Mario Biggeri.

  • Asian informal workers : global risks, local protection / ed. by Santosh Mehrotra and Mario Biggeri.
    (2007) Routledge studies in the growth economies in Asia ; 68; XXX, 475 S.

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Changes in informal employment with economic development : evidence from Asian countries / Sachiko Kazekami.

  • Changes in informal employment with economic development : evidence from Asian countries / Sachiko Kazekami.
    (2009) Nagoya; 40 Bl.

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The informal sector in developing countries : output, assets and employment / Sangeeta Pratap and Erwan Quintin.

  • The informal sector in developing countries : output, assets and employment / Sangeeta Pratap and Erwan Quintin.
    (2008) In: Personal wealth from a global perspective. – 2008, S. 373-392.

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  • Personal wealth from a global perspective : a study prepared for the World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University (UNU-WIDER) / ed. by James B. Davies.
    (2008) UNU-WIDER studies in development economics; XXIV, 467 S.

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  • The informal sector in developing countries : output, assets and employment / Sangeeta Pratap and Erwan Quintin.
    (Nov. 2006) Research paper / UNU-WIDER ; 2006.130; Online-Ressource, 26 S. = 184 KB, Text.

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Labor productivity growth, informal wage, and capital mobility : a general equilibrium analysis / Sugata Marjit and Saibal Kar.

  • Labor productivity growth, informal wage, and capital mobility : a general equilibrium analysis / Sugata Marjit and Saibal Kar.
    (2009) In: Labour markets and economic development. – London [u.a.]. – 2009, S. 286-298.

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Economic growth and poverty reduction : what role for the informal economy? / Ute Rietdorf.

  • Economic growth and poverty reduction : what role for the informal economy? / Ute Rietdorf.
    (2006) In: Private sector development and poverty reduction. – Leipzig. – 2006, S. 14-25.

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Entwicklungsländer

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Informeller Sektor

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