Nach welchen Regeln werden Arbeitsleistungen vergütet?

Die aktuelle Diskussion über zu hohe Managergehälter am oberen und zu niedrige Löhne am unteren Ende der Gehaltsskala führt zu den Grundregeln der Lohnbildung. In der ökonomischen Theorie stehen dabei vor allem individuelle Produktivitätsunterschiede als Ursache von Lohnunterschieden im Vordergrund. Wenig – wie einige Ökonomen finden zu wenig – wird dabei auf die Machtstrukturen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt geachtet.

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Literaturliste

Regeln der Managervergütung / Nils Hesse.

Mindestlöhne: das deutsche und das Schweizer Modell / Michael Gerhardt.

Hohe Lohnforderungen zum falschen Zeitpunkt? / Reinhard Bispinck.

Arbeitslosengeld II : Arbeitsanreize und Verteilungsgerechtigkeit / Christos Koulovatianos; Ulrich Schmidt; Carsten Schröder.
Um die Arbeitsanreize und die Verteilungsgerechtigkeit des Arbeitslosengeldes II (ALG II) zu analysieren, ist eine Quantifizierung des Arbeitsleides und des Wertes der Haushaltsproduktion in verschiedenen Haushaltstypen notwendig. Da diese Größen nicht direkt beobachtbar sind, verwendet die vorliegende Studie Befragungsdaten. Es zeigt sich, dass das ALG II zu zwei Grundproblemen führt: Zum einen sind die Arbeitsanreize gerade für kinderreiche Haushalte sehr gering, zum anderen werden Mehrpersonenhaushalte, insbesondere Familien mit Kindern beim ALG II finanziell benachteiligt. Um diese Probleme zu mildern, sollten Maßnahmen vorangetrieben werden, die den Lebensstandard von Familien mit Kindern im Rahmen des ALG II erhöhen und gleichzeitig die Opportunitätskosten einer Arbeitsaufnahme senken. Geeignet erscheint hier insbesondere eine Ganztagsbetreuung von Kindern mit kostenfreien Mahlzeiten.

Denkanstöße zur Mindestlohnkontroverse / Hermann Ribhegge.

Auflösung des deutschen Tarifmodells?

Ärgernis Managergehälter / Hans-Hagen Härtel.

Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap / Dirk Antonczyk, Bernd Fitzenberger, and Katrin Sommerfeld.
This paper investigates the increase in wage inequality, the decline in collective bargaining, and the development of the gender wage gap in West Germany between 2001 and 2006. Based on detailed linked employer-employee data, we show that wage inequality is rising strongly – driven not only by real wage increases at the top of the wage distribution, but also by real wage losses below the median. Coverage by collective wage bargaining plummets by 16.5 (19.1) percentage points for male (female) employees. Despite these changes, the gender wage gap remains almost constant, with some small gains for women at the bottom and at the top of the wage distribution. A sequential decomposition analysis using quantile regression shows that all workplace related effects (firm effects and bargaining effects) and coefficients for personal characteristics contribute strongly to the rise in wage inequality. Among these, the firm coefficients effect dominates, which is almost exclusively driven by wage differences within and between different industries. Labor demand or firm wage policy related effects contribute to an increase in the gender wage gap. Personal characteristics tend to reduce wage inequality for both, males and females, as well as the gender wage gap. — Distribution ; Gender Wage Gap ; Collective Bargaining ; Quantile Regression ; Sequential Decomposition

Lohnbildung in modernen Arbeitsmärkten : weder gerecht noch effizient / Ekkehart Schlicht.

Polarization and rising wage inequality : comparing the U.S. and Germany / Dirk Antonczyk, Thomas DeLeire, and Bernd Fitzenberger.
This paper compares trends in wage inequality in the U.S. and Germany using an approach developed by MaCurdy and Mroz (1995) to separate age, time, and cohort effects. Between 1979 and 2004, wage inequality increased strongly in both the U.S. and Germany but there were various country specific aspects of this increase. For the U.S., we find faster wage growth since the 1990s at the top (80% quantile) and the bottom (20% quantile) compared to the median of the wage distribution, which is evidence for polarization in the U.S. labor market. In contrast, we find little evidence for wage polarization in Germany. Moreover, we see a large role played by cohort effects in Germany, while we find only small cohort effects in the U.S. Employment trends in both countries are consistent with polarization since the 1990s. We conclude that although there is evidence in both the U.S. and Germany which is consistent with a technology-driven polarization of the labor market, the patterns of trends in wage inequality differ strongly enough that technology effects alone cannot explain the empirical findings. — Wage inequality ; polarization ; international comparison ; cohort study ; quantile regression

Arbeit und Fairness : die Suche nach dem gerechten Lohn / Hagen Lesch; Jenny Bennett.

Governance und Marktdesign : auf der Suche nach den besten “Spielregeln” ; Perspektiven aus Wissenschaft, Praxis und Politik / Heinrich Tschochohei; Stefan Zimmermann (Hrsg.).

  • (2009) Frankfurt am Main [u.a.]; 454 S.
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  • Zur Fairness von Entlohnungsformen / Christine Harbring und Bernd Irlenbusch.
    (2009) In: Governance und Marktdesign. – 2009, S. 231-263.

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Gerechtigkeit im Entgeltfindungsprozess / Christopher Paul und Stephan Schaefer.

Die Legitimität des Marktregimes : Leistungs- und Gerechtigkeitsorientierungen in neuen Formen betrieblicher Leistungspolitik / von Wolfgang Menz.

Selection wages and discrimination / Ekkehart Schlicht.
Applicants for any given job are more or less suited to fill it, and the firm will select the best among them. Increasing the wage offer attracts more applicants and makes it possible to raise the hiring standard, thereby improving the productivity of the staff. Wages that optimize on the trade-off between the wage level and the productivity of the workforce are known as selection wages. As men react more strongly to wage differentials than females, the trade-off is more pronounced for men and a profit-maximizing firm will offer a higher wage for men than for women in equilibrium. The argument is not confined to issues of sex discrimination; rather it is of relevance for all labor markets where labor heterogeneity is important and supply elasticities vary systematically across occupations. — Discrimination ; sex discrimination ; occupational discrimination ; regional discrimination ; selection wages ; efficiency wages ; hiring standards ; monopsony ; employment criteria ; wage posting ; Reder competition ; wage structure ; inter-industry wage structure ; employer size-wage effect ; occupational wage structure

How does reciprocal behaviour of workers influence the wage setting of unions? / Tobias Kronenberg.

Macht oder ökonomisches Gesetz? : zur Aktualität einer gesellschaftspolitischen Kontroverse / hrsg. von Johannes Berger und Hans G. Nutzinger.

  • (2008) Ökonomie und Gesellschaft ; 21; 378 S.
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  • Lohnspreizung und Effizienz / Ekkehart Schlicht.
    (2008) Münchener wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beiträge ; 2008-01; Online-Ressource (28 S., 283 KB).

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  • Lohnspreizung und Effizienz / Ekkehart Schlicht.
    (2008) In: Macht oder ökonomisches Gesetz?. – Bd. 21.2008, S. 301-323.

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Lohngerechtigkeit im Wandel der Arbeitsgesellschaft / Holger Lengfeld.

Empfinden die Erwerbstätigen in Deutschland ihre Einkommen als gerecht? / Stefan Liebig; Jürgen Schupp.

Geschlechterungleichheiten im Betrieb : Arbeit, Entlohnung und Gleichstellung in der Privatwirtschaft / Projektgruppe GiB. Juliane Achatz ….

Monopsonistic labour markets and the gender pay gap : theory and empirical evidence / Boris Hirsch.
In this paper, we investigate regional differences in the gender pay gap both theoretically and empirically. Within a spatial oligopsony model, we show that more densely populated labour markets are more competitive and constrain employers’ ability to discriminate against women. Utilising a large administrative data set for western Germany and a flexible semi-parametric propensity score matching approach, we find that the unexplained gender pay gap for young workers is substantially lower in large metropolitan than in rural areas. This regional gap in the gap of roughly ten percentage points remained surprisingly constant over the entire observation period of thirty years. — Gender pay gap ; urban-rural differences ; matching ; monopsonistic discrimination

  • (2010) Zugl.: Erlangen-Nürnberg, Univ., Diss., [2009]. – ; XXIII, 259 S.
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  • Is there a gap in the gap? : regional differences in the gender pay gap / Boris Hirsch; Marion König; Joachim Möller.
    (2009) IZA discussion papers ; 4231; Online-Ressource (PDF-Datei: 29 S.).

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Motherhood, labour force behavior, and women’s careers : an empirical assessment of the wage penalty for motherhood in Britain, Germany, and the United States / Markus Gangl and Andrea Ziefle.

Paying more than necessary? : the wage cushion in Germany / Sven Jung and Claus Schnabel.
Using a representative establishment data set for Germany, we show that more than 40 percent of plants covered by collective agreements pay wages above the level stipulated in the agreement, which gives rise to a wage cushion between the levels of actual and contractual wages. Cross-sectional and fixed-effects estimations for the period 2001-2006 indicate that the wage cushion mainly varies with the profit situation of the plant and with indicators of labour shortage and the business cycle. While plants bound by multi-employer sectoral agreements seem to pay wage premiums in order to overcome the restrictions imposed by the rather centralized system of collective bargaining in Germany, plants which make use of single-employer agreements are significantly less likely to have wage cushions. — wages ; wage cushion ; wage determination ; bargaining ; Germany

Wage inequality and the changing organization of work / by Dennis Görlich and Dennis J. Snower.
This paper sheds light on how changes in the organization of work lead to wage inequality. We present a theoretical model in which workers with a wider span of competence (higher level of multitasking) earn a wage premium. Since abilities and opportunities to expand the span of competence are distributed unequally among workers across and within education groups, our theory explains (1) rising wage inequality between groups, (2) rising wage inequality within groups, and (3) the polarization of work and the decoupling of the income distribution. Using a rich German data set covering a 20-year period from 1986 to 2006, we provide empirical support for our model. — Wage inequality ; tasks ; multitasking ; organizational change

The minimum wage revisited in the enlarged EU / International Labour Organization. Ed. by Daniel Vaughan-Whitehead.

  • (2010) Cheltenham [u.a.]; VIII, 544 S.
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  • Germany : what role for minimum wages on low-wage work? / Gerhard Bosch and Thorsten Kalina.
    (2010) In: The minimum wage revisited in the enlarged EU. – 2010, S. 185-212.

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Low-wage careers : are there dead-end firms and dead-end jobs? / Alexander Mosthaf; Claus Schnabel; Jens Stephani.
Using representative linked employer-employee data of the German Federal Employment Agency, this paper shows that just one out of seven full-time employees who earned low wages (i.e. less than two-thirds of the median wage) in 1998/99 was able to earn wages above the low-wage threshold in 2003. Bivariate probit estimations with endogenous selection indicate that upward wage mobility is higher for younger and better qualified low-wage earners, whereas women are substantially less successful. We show that the characteristics of the employing firm also matter for low-wage earners’ probability of escaping low-paid work. In particular small plants and plants with a high share of low-wage earners often seem to be dead ends for low-wage earners. The likelihood of leaving the low-wage sector is also low when staying in unskilled and skilled service occupations and in unskilled commercial and administrational occupations. Consequently, leaving these dead-end plants and occupations appears to be an important instrument for achieving wages above the low-wage threshold. — Low-wage employment ; wage mobility ; Germany

“Making work pay” in a rationed labor market / Olivier Bargain; Marco Caliendo; Peter Haan; Kristian Orsini.
To tackle mass unemployment and increase participation rates, the German government over recent years has mainly focused on supply side strategies, including ‘making work pay’ policies. The 2003 Mini-Job reform introduced an extended subsidy of social security contributions for low wage workers. In this paper, we evaluate the employment effects of this reform using a behavioural tax-benefit microsimulation model. Ex-ante micro policy evaluations based on labour supply models usually ignore involuntary unemployment. This leads to biased estimates of labour supply elasticities and erroneous predictions of the effects of the measure. This aspect is all the more important in a country like Germany, characterized by high unemployment. In this analysis we evaluate the employment effects of the Mini-Job reform by controlling for involuntary unemployment through a double-hurdle model. When focusing on the main labour force, we show that the Mini-Job reform has only a small positive effect on the extensive margin, which is outweighed by a reduction of working hours at the intensive margin.

  • (2010) In: Journal of population economics. – Bd. 23.2010, 1, (Jan.2010) S. 323-351.
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  • “Making Work Pay” in a rationed labour market: the mini-job reform in Germany / Olivier Bargain; Marco Caliendo; Peter Haan; Kristian Orsini.
    (Dec. 2005) Discussion papers / German Institute for Economic Research ; 536; Online-Ressource, 25 S., Text.

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Low-wage work in five European countries and the United States / Gerhard Bosch.

Löhne und Gehälter in Deutschland : Ihre Entwicklung in Wirtschaft und Staat von 1960 û 2000 / by Ulrike Walter.
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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Lohndifferenzierung

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Wesentliches Schlagwort: Lohnstruktur

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Wesentliche Person: Ekkehart Schlicht

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